Cell Biology-Exam 1

35 terms by amber_mead 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

A preview of the Cell. The Chemistry of the Cell. And Proteins

Cell

Basic unit of biology and reproduction

Robert Hooke

scientist. built first microscope. called cells cellula which means "little room" in Latin.

antonie van leeuwenhoek

dutch shopkeeper. produced lenses that could magnify 300x their size. first to look at living cells

resolution

the ability to see fine details of structure.

robert brown

enlisht botanist. found the nucleus

kernel

the latin word for nucleus

matthias schleiden

conclusion that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant always arises from a single cell.

theodor schwann

reported the same as schleiden but for animal cells

cell theory

by schwann in 1839
1. all organisms consist of one or more cells.
2. the cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms
3. all cells arise only from preexisting cells

modern cell biology

cytology, biochemistry, and genetics

cytology

study of cellular structure.

biochemistry

study of our understanding of cellular funtion.
techniques include: ultracentrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry

genetics

monk and biologist: Gregor Mendel by the pea plants
"hereditary factors"- genes

genomes

All the genetic material in an organism

cloning

production of genetically identical organisms

cytos

greek word meaning "hollow vessel"

light microscope

allowed cytologists to identify membrane bounded structures such as the nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts

organelles

little organs

microtome

an instrument for slicing very thin sections of biological samples

limit of resolution

refers to how far apart adjacent objects must be in order to be distinguished as seperate entities. the smaller this is the greater the resolving power of the microscope.

flourescene microscopy

powerful method that enables researchers to detect specific proteins, DNA sequences or particular molecules by binging them to a fluorestently anitbody

GFP

green fluorescent protein from the jelllyfish Aequorea victoria

confocal scanning

uses a laser beam to illuminate just one plane of the specimen at a time

digital video microscopy

uses video cameras to collect digital images for computer storage

electron microscope

in germany in 1932 then widespread in 1950's
uses a beam of electrons that is deflected and focused by an electromagnetic field
limit of resolution is better than of light microscope

biochemistry data

Wohler- urea could be synthesized from ammonium cyanate
Louis Pasteur- living organisms to specific processes

enzymes

zyme. greek word meaning yeast

calvin cycle

the most common pathway for photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

centrifugation

separating and isolating subcellular structures and macromolecules based on their size, shape and/or density. process called subcellular fractionation.

Chromatography

a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency

electrophoresis

refers to several related techniques that use an electrical field to separate molecules based on their mobility

mass spectrometry

commonly used to determine the size and composition of individual proteins

bioinformatics

merges computer science and biology as a means of making sense of sequence data

hypothesis

a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

chemiosmotic

what theory states that the concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set