Basic unit of biology and reproduction
scientist. built first microscope. called cells cellula which means "little room" in Latin.
antonie van leeuwenhoek
dutch shopkeeper. produced lenses that could magnify 300x their size. first to look at living cells
the ability to see fine details of structure.
enlisht botanist. found the nucleus
the latin word for nucleus
conclusion that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant always arises from a single cell.
reported the same as schleiden but for animal cells
by schwann in 1839
1. all organisms consist of one or more cells.
2. the cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms
3. all cells arise only from preexisting cells
modern cell biology
cytology, biochemistry, and genetics
study of cellular structure.
study of our understanding of cellular funtion.
techniques include: ultracentrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry
monk and biologist: Gregor Mendel by the pea plants
"hereditary factors"- genes
All the genetic material in an organism
production of genetically identical organisms
greek word meaning "hollow vessel"
allowed cytologists to identify membrane bounded structures such as the nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts
an instrument for slicing very thin sections of biological samples
limit of resolution
refers to how far apart adjacent objects must be in order to be distinguished as seperate entities. the smaller this is the greater the resolving power of the microscope.
powerful method that enables researchers to detect specific proteins, DNA sequences or particular molecules by binging them to a fluorestently anitbody
green fluorescent protein from the jelllyfish Aequorea victoria
uses a laser beam to illuminate just one plane of the specimen at a time
digital video microscopy
uses video cameras to collect digital images for computer storage
in germany in 1932 then widespread in 1950's
uses a beam of electrons that is deflected and focused by an electromagnetic field
limit of resolution is better than of light microscope
Wohler- urea could be synthesized from ammonium cyanate
Louis Pasteur- living organisms to specific processes
zyme. greek word meaning yeast
the most common pathway for photosynthetic carbon metabolism.
separating and isolating subcellular structures and macromolecules based on their size, shape and/or density. process called subcellular fractionation.
a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
refers to several related techniques that use an electrical field to separate molecules based on their mobility
commonly used to determine the size and composition of individual proteins
merges computer science and biology as a means of making sense of sequence data
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
what theory states that the concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation