Music (5,6)

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Themes

melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition.

Motives

short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit

Thematic development

musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm.

Ostinatos

a short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one.

absolute music

music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program

multimovement cycle

A three or four movement structure used in Classical era instrumental music-especially the symphony, sonata, concerto and in chamber music, each movement is in a prescribed tempo and form.

sonata-allegro form

The opening movement of the multimovement cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section (exposition), developed in the second section (recapitulation). Also first movement form

3 main sections of sonata-allegro form

1. exposition
2. development
3. recapitulation

First movement

sonata-allegro form

Theme and variations

compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements, occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multimovement cycle

Exposition

Opening section.

Recapitulation

Third section of sonata-allegro form in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic

Cyclical structure

Structure in which musical material, such as a theme, presented in one movement returns in a later movement

Development

structural reshaping of thematic material.

da capo

"from the beginning"

minuet and trio

an A-B-A form in a moderate triple meter, often the third movement of the classical multimovement cycle

rhythmic variation

the procedure in which note lengths, meter, or tempo is altered

harmonic variation

the procedure in which the chords accompanying a melody are replaced by others

coda

the last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close

Minuet (letter)

A

Trio (letter)

B

The Classical Era

1750-1825

diatonic structure

melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. Encompasses patterns of seven whole and half notes

Homophonic texture

texture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm

Rocket themes

quickly ascending

chamber music

ensemble music for up to about ten players with one player to a part

string quartet

Chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello.

Mozart

- Austrian
- Saltzburg
- Started to write music before the age of 5
- "Eine kleine Nachtmusik"
- "The Marriage of Figaro"
- Piano Concerto in G major

steamroller effects

drawn out crescendos

Haydn

- Austrian composer
- Symphony No 94 "Surprise"

Beethoven

- Viennese
- Went deaf and still wrote music
- Symphony No. 5
- Piano Sonata in C minor "Moonlight"

Cadenzas

improvised solo passages

pianoforte

original name for the piano

Mass

central service of the roman catholic church

Requiem Mass

Roman catholic mass of the dead

Opera buffa

comic opera

Opera seria

serious opera

aria

lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing emotion

recitative

solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style

Tonic

first note of the scale

Sontato-Allegro form

opening (first movement), longest movement

staccato

dry

third movement

the movement that is called minuet and trio

Movements in a symphony

4 movements

Mozart's last opera

The Magic Flute

trouser roll

women with mans role

(Another name) kettle drum

timpani (another name)

Oboe

double reed (what instrument?)

English horn

an alto oboe

Violin developed

1600-1750

Tempo

rate of speed or pace of music

Crescendo

growing louder

movements in a concerto

3 movements

Melody

the line or tune in music

contour

how a melody moves up and down

Range

a span of pitches in a melody

interval

the distance between any two pitches in a melody

conjunct

a melody that moves in small, connected intervals

disjunct

disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps

phrase

a unit that makes up a melody

cadences

a resting place where phrases end

rhythm

what moves music forward in time

meter

marked off in measures, organizes the beats in music

harmony

the simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationship of intervals and chords

chord

simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony

texture

the interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric

monophony

single line texture or melody without accompaniment

dynamics

element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness or volume of a sound

anadante

walking pace

piano

soft

forte

loud

allegro

fast

Mozart

Eine Kleine Nachtmusik

Haydn

Symphony No 94

Beethoven

Symphony No 5 in C minor

Mozart

Piano Concerto in G major

Beethoven

Piano Sonata in C minor

Haydn

Surprise

Beethoven

Moonlight

Mozart

The Marriage of Figaro

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