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What causes pnuemonia

inflammatory process that primarily affects the has exchange area of the lung. In response to the inflammation fluid and RBCs from adjacent pulmonary capillaries pour into the alveoli

surface phagocytosis

ploymorphonuclear leukocytes move into the infected area to engulf and kill invading bacteria on the alveolar walls

consolidated or consolidation

when the alveoli become filled with fluid

The major pathologic or structural changes associated with pneumonia are

1. inflammation of the alveoli
2. alveolar consolidation
3. atelectasis

Pneumonia involving an entire lobe of the lung is called

lobar pnuemonia

When both lungs are involved, the condition is called

double pneumonia

early signs of a baterial infection

chills
shaking
high fever
w3ating
cheswt pain
yellow or green sputm
cough

bacterial pneumonia is often confined to how many lungs

lobar pnuemonia

What are the three classification of bacterial infections

1. gram-positive organisms
2. gram-negative organisms
3. anaerobic organisms

What are the two gram positive organisms

1. streptococcal pneumonia
2. Staphylococcal pneumonia

What are the two types of staphylococcal pneumonia

1. staphylococcus aureus (responsible for most staph infection in humans
2. staphylococcus albus and staphylococcus epidermidis (normal skin flora)

The major gram negative organisms responsible for pneumonia are

rod-shaped microorganisms called bacilli

H. influenzae is common in causing what in chillren

epiglottitis

k. pneumoniae organism is long associated with what type of pneumonia. Lobar or double

Lobar

The mortality of patients with K. pneumoniae is quite high because of what

septicemia

What is the leading cause of hospital acquired pneumonia?

P aeruginosa

What is a naturla inhabitant of the human pharynx

M. catarrhalis

E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the

intestinal tract

What is the is the most common cause of mild pneumonia

M. pneumoniae

common symptom of mycoplasma pneumonia is

cough, that tends to come in violent attacks, producing only a small amount of white mucus

M. pneumoniae is smaller than ______ but larger than ________.

bacteria viruses

atypical organisms

1. M. pneumoniae
2. legion pneumophila
3, chlamydia psittaci
4. chalmydia pneumoniae

gram negative organisms

1. Haemophilus influenzae
2. klebsiella pneumoniae
3. psuidomonas aerugiosa
4. m. catarrhalis
5. e coli
6. serratia pecies
7. enterobacter species

chlamydia psittaci

found in feces of a variety of birds

legionalla pneumophila is found in

standing water large air conditioning systems and water tanks

Major anaerobic organisms associated with pneumonia are

peptostreptococcus species

_______________ _______________ ___________ ____________ _______________ __________________ ____________are the major causes of anaerobic lung infections

aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions and gastric fluids

predisposing risk factors of aspiration include a

decreased level of consciousness, impaired swallowing, poor dental hygiene and gastrointestinal abnormalities

most viruses attack the

upper airways

early symptoms of a viral infection are

a dry nonproductive cough, headache, fever, muscle pain, and fatigue

approximately ___% of acute upper respiratory tract infections and ___% of lower respiratory tract infectino s are caused by viruses

90 and 50

Common viruses that cause pneumonia

1. influenza virus
2. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
3. parainfluenza virus
4. adenoviruses
5. Severe acute repiratory syndrome (SARS)

Friedlander's Bacillus is better known as

k. pneumoniae

Bacillus pyocyaneus is better known as

p. aeruginosa

What type of influenza virus are the most common causes of viral respiratory tract infections?

a and b

Respiratory syncytial virus is a member of what group

paramxovirus group. With parainfluenza, mumps, and rubella

When is RSV most commonly seen

in children less than 12 months and adults with underlying heart or pulmonary disease

What are the five types of parainfluenza viruses

1
2
3
4a
4b

Type one parainfluenza is a

croup type virus

type 2 and 3 parainfluenza is

associated with severe infections
2 is infants and 3 is all ages
2 is fall and 3 is spring

How many adenovirus subgroups are there

30

Which serotypes cause viral infections and pnuemonia. and which one kills kids

4,7,14,21

7 kills kids

What is the cause of SARS

coronavirus

Aspiration of astric fluid with a pH of ___ or less causes a serious and often fatal form of pneumonia

2.5

Mendelson's syndrome

aspiration pneumonitis in pregnant women

What are the three types of aspiration pneumonia

1. toxic injury to the lung
2. obstruction
3. infections

If the aspirte's pH is above _____ the initial injury is rapidly reversible

5.9

Normal swallowing mechanics has four phases as follows

1. oral preparatory
2. oral
3. pharyngeal
4. esophageal

silent aspiration

is defined as aspiration that does not evoke clinically observable adverse symptoms

Lipoid Pneumonitis

aspiration of mineral oil

P. carinii is found in what type of patients

AIDS

Lung is the primary site for

fungal infections

community acquired pneumonia (CAP)

defined as a lower respiratory tract infection that is acquired outside of the hospital or during the first 48 hours

Most common cause of CAP

streptococcus

Hospital acquired pneumonia

pneumonia that develops 48 hours after admission to the hospital

ventilator acquied pneumonia

pneumonia developed 48-72 hours after intubation

nursing home acquired pnuemonia

infectino that develops in a long term care facility

vital signs

increased

RR, HR, BP

PFT findings in pneumonia

everything is decreased except for FEV1/FVC ratio which is increased

Lung volume and cpapcity findings

everything decreased except RV/TLC ratio which is normal

during mild to moderate stages what does the blood gas look like

acute respiratory alkalosis

during severe stages what does the blood has look like

acute respiratory acidosis

what deoes the chest radiograph look like

increased density (from consolidation and atelectasis)
air bronchograms
pleural effusions

Fluid samples may be examined for the following

1.color
2. odor
3. RBC count
4. protein
5. glucose
6. LDH
7. Amylase
8. pH
9. Wright's Gram and acid fast bacillus stains
10. cultures
11. cytology

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