The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. The fundamental organizing principle of biology.
The scientific study of life.
Properties of Life
Order, Regulation, Energy Processing, Evolutionary Adaptation, Reproduction, Response to the Environment, Growth and Development.
The properties where living things become more and more complex as it goes from cellular level to organ system.
The reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study - is a powerful strategy in biology.
Consists of all the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life. Includes: most regions of land, most bodies of water, and the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers.
Consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with ll the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light. Examples of ecosystems: deciduous forests (trees that lose their leaves in 1 season and grow new ones in another season), grasslands, deserts, and other ocean's coral reefs.
An entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem. Community in our forest ecosystem includes many kinds of trees and other plants, a diversity of animals, various mushrooms, and other fungi, and enormous #s of diverse microorganisms, which are living forms, such as, bacteria, that are too small to see without a microscope.
Populations consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area.
A body part consisting of 2 or more tissues; carries out a particular function in the body. Human organs: brain, kidneys, lungs, heart, etc.
Organs of humans, other complex animals, and plants are organized into organ systems, each a team of organs that cooperate in a specific function.
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism
Life's fundamental unit of structure and function. Plants and animals are multicellular.
Various functional components that make up cells.
Is a chemical structure consisting of 2 or more small chemical units called atoms.
The most important molecule on Earth which absorbs sunlight during the 1st step of photosynthesis.
"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."
Branch of biology that names and classifies species, formalizes this ordering of species into groups of increasing breadth.
Diversity of life divided into 5 Kingdoms
Plants, animals, fungi, single-celled eukaryotic organisms, prokaryotes.
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms.
Many of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in Earth's extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs.
Protists (Multiple Kingdoms) are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives.
Defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members, such as the mushroom, which absorbs nutrients from their surroundings.
Multicellular eukaryotes that carryout photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to chemical energy in food.
Multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms.
On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection - Main points
1. Darwin presented evidence to support his view that contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors.
2. Propose a mechanism for descent with modification.
Darwin's observations from nature
Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which seem to be heritable (passed on from parents to offspring), a population can produce far more offspring than can survive to produces offspring of their own.
1. Population with varied inherited traits.
2. Elimination of individuals with certain traits.
3. Reproduction of survivors.
4. Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success.
Consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds.
Cannot be broken down chemically to other substances.
Contains 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Isotopes of an element differ from each other in neutron # and therefore mass. Unstable isotopes give off particles and energy as radioactivity.
Chemical bonds form when atoms interact and complete their valence shells. Covalent bonds form when pairs of electrons are shared.
The biological medium on Earth. 3/4 of the Earth's Surface. All living organisms require water more than any other substance. Water is polar because of unequal distribution of electrons.
Is more electronegative than hydrogen. Has a partial negative charge.
2 ends of the molecule have opposite charges.
Has a partial positive charge.
Any substance that has an affinity for water (from the Greek hydro, water and philios, loving).
A stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid.
Substances that are non-ionic and nonpolar (or for some other reason cannot form hydrogen bonds) actually seem to repel water (From the Greek phobos, fearing)
4 Large Molecules of Life
Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids.
On the molecular scale, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are huge and are called macromolecules.
(From the Greek Polys, many, and meris, part) are long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer are smaller molecules
Monomers are connected by a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule.
Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. To break using water. Bonds between the monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules, with a hydrogen from the water attaching to one monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching to the adjacent monomer.
When a bond forms between 2 monomers, each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is lost: one molecule provides a hydroxyl group (-OH), while the other provides a hydrogen (-H). This reaction can be repeated as monomers are added to the chain one by one, making a polymer. Dehydration process is facilitated by enzymes.
Built form 20 kinds of amino acids arranged in chains that are typically hundreds of amino acids long.
Sugars and polymers of sugars. Simplest carbs are the monosaccharides or simple sugars.
Double sugars consisting of 2 monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond (glycosidic linkage)
Polymers composed of many sugar building blocks. Macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for ells.
Have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
The most common monosaccharide and is of central importance in the chemistry of life. C6H12O6. It has a carboxyl group (>C=O) and multiple hydrogen groups (-OH). Glucose is an aldose sugar. The 2 ring forms for glucose are called: alpha and beta.
Classification of Sugars
1. Depends on the location of the carbonyl group
2. The size of the carbon skeleton, which ranges from 3 to 7 carbons long.
3. Source of diversity of simple sugars are the spatial arrangement of their parts around asymmetric carbons.
A carbon attached to 4 different atoms or groups of atoms.
Process where cells extract energy in a series of reactions starting with glucose molecules.
A covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A disaccharide formed by the linking of 2 molecules of glucose, also known as Malt sugar. It's an ingredient used in brewing beer.
Table sugar; 2 monomers are glucose and fructose. Plants generally transport carbs from leaves to roots and other non-photosynthetic organs in the form of sucrose.
The sugar present in milk, is another disaccharide, in this case a glucose molecule joined to a galactose molecule.
Plants store starch. A polymer of glucose monomers, as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, which include chloroplasts. Represents stored energy.
More complex starch, is a branched polymer with 1-6 linkages at the branch points.
Unbranched, and is the simplest form of starch.
A polysaccharide that animals store. A polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched. In humans, glycogen is depleted in about a day unless they are replenished by consumption of food.
A major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells. It's a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages in these 2 polymers differ. The molecule is straight. Never branched. Humans don't possess enzymes that can digest cellulose, but animals do.
Cable-like microfibrils are a strong building material for plants and an important substance for humans because cellulose is the major constituent of paper and the only component of cotton.
An important structural polysaccharride; carb is used by anthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans, and related animals) to build their exoskeletons.
The hard case that surrounds the soft parts of an animal.
Are the 1 class of large biological molecules that doesn't include true polymers and they generally not big enoughto be considered macromolecules. They are grouped together because they share trait: they mix poorly. with water.
Not polymers, but large molecules assembled from a few smaller molecules by dehydration reaction. It's constructed by 2