A condition of equilibrium in the bodies internal environment due to constant interaction of the body's regulatory processes
A cycle of events in which status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed then re-evaluated, etc.
the structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controled condition
where the subject is standing erect facing the observer with the head level, eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor directed forward. The upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
cavity formed by the ribs and diaphragm contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea
cavity formed by the diaphragm and an imaginary horizontal line between the two hips
is mainly composed of phospholipids which have a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails.
water hating ... since water exists both inside and outside the cell, the hydrophobic tails face each other to avoid exposure to water.
1. can form ion channels to allow specific ions into and out of the cell 2. Can form carriers and transporters. 3. can serve as receptors 4. can serve as enzymes to catalize reactions (speed up) 5. can serve as a linker (attaches filiments to the plasma membrane) 6. cell identity marker allows other cells to identify it.
substances move across the plasma membrane along a concentration gradient from areas of high concentration to low concentration.
Factors that effect the rate of passive diffusion
1. the steepness of the concentration gradient. The higher the steepness of the gradient increases the rate. 2. temperature increases, increase the rate of diffusion. 3. mass of the diffusing substance. Increase in mass decreases rate. 4. surface area of membrane - increased surface area = increased rate 5. diffusion distance increased diffusion distance = decreased rate
substances pass through the plasma membrane freely without the help of transport proteins
carrier mediated diffusion
the substance binds to the carrier on one side of the membrane which triggers the carrier to change shape and bring the substance to the other side.
when the concentration of solutes in a solution is much higher than inside the cell (cells shrink)
when the concentration of solute in the solution is less than the concentration of solutes in a cell (watered down) ... causes cell to burst
Na/K pump or sodium potassium pump
an active transport mechanism - 3 na's inside the cell bind to the pump. this triggers ATP hydrolysis, P binds to the pump and triggers the pump to change shape. Brings the 3 Na outside the cell. 2 K outside the cell bind to the pump triggering the P to leave and the pump to change back to it's original shape. K are brought into the cell.
An unstable isotope where the atom will spontaneously change its state and release energy - radiation. (used in imaging and cancer treatment)
An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. can be positively or negatively charged.
In blood buffer system
carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system - H+ (strong acid) and HCO3 (weak base) = H2CO3 (weak acid) Carbonic acid
Carbonic Acid -Bicarbonate Buffer System
Converts strong acids into weak ones. An excess of H+ wil drive the reaction to produce more carbonic acid and therefore weaken the effects of H+ as a strong acid
If H+ leaves the blood
a deficiency of H+ will drive the reaction to produce more bicarbonate (H2CO3) and more H+ thereby providing the body with more H+ to replace those H+ that were lost.
It is a network of protein filiments that give the cell structure and allows the cell to move.
act as oars of a boat. They are rigid and move fluid such as mucus along the surface of its cell. (example: Trachea cell)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
has ribosomes and produces many different kinds of proteins. Produces phospholipids. Attaches proteins to the phospholipids
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
has no ribosomes. stores the calcium ion. Important in muscle contraction and synthesizes fatty acids and steroids
processes and packages protein released from the endoplasmic reticulum and sends them to their destinations (the UPS of the cell)
the powerhouse of the cell. Produces the majority of the cells energy (ATP). Has an outer and inner membrane. Matrix is the area between the membranes. Contains its own DNA and can self replicate
During this phase the cell replicates almost all of its organelles (not DNA and the centrosome begins to replicate)
centrosome completes it's replication. Enzymes and proteins are made in preparation for cell division.
The chromatin fibers of DNA fold up back into chromosomes. The centrosomes travel to opposite ends of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks up. The pericentrial material materializes into the mitotic spindle (the filiments that make up the mitotic spindle are the microtubules) The microtubules of the mitotic spindle connect the centreoles to the centromere.
the microtubles of the mitotic spindle align the centromeres while the centrioles remain at opposite ends of the cell. The midpoint is called the metaphase plate
The centromeres split to opposite ends and separate each pair of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow forms in preparation of cytokinesis
The chromosomes uncoil and revert to the uncoiled chromatin. The nuclear membrane forms around each mass of chromatin and the mitotic spindle breaks up. The cleavage furrow continues to develop until cytokinesis is complete and the cell has divided into 2 cells.
weblike strands of proteins that fuse cell surfaces to each other to prevent leakage (ex: stomach)
they hold cells together, especially in areas of weaker contractions (ex: intestines)
prevent separation of cells, especially in areas of strong contractions (ex: heart and skeletal muscles)
allows easy diffusion of substances between cells especially in tissues that lack their own blood supply
a selective barrier that limits and aids the transfer of substances into and out of the body. Serves as secretory surfaces (secretes mucus). Also serves as protective surfaces.
serves as an attachment point and support for epithelial cells. Made up of Basal Lamina
single layer of epithelial cells whose function is diffusion, filtration, secretions and absorbption
multiple layers of cells that function as protection for the underlying tissue
A single layer of cells. Some of which extend to the apical (top) surface. The location of the nucleus varies from cell to cell
tall and thin cells shaped like columns. Protects the underlying tissue and also function to secrete and absorb substances
cells that change shape between flat and cubodial in organs that stretch (ex. Urinary bladder)
Simple Squamous Epithelium, Simple Cubodial, Simple Columnar, pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The last two can be ciliated and non-ciliated.
Stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cubodial epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium and transitional epithelium