Chapter 10

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1. The Whig party was made of former federalists and Republicans who believed what?

Members of the Whig party favored an active government that encouraged economic development.

2. What were the forces of division within the Republican Party in the early 1820's?

Pressures from industrialization of the Northeast, the spread of cotton growing in the South, and westward expansion.

7. Election of 1828

Jackson was wealthy, but the Democrats portrayed him as a poor man of the people, opposed to the aristocratic Adams, so Jackson won the election. This election also showed a clear sectional split: the South and Southwest favored Jackson, and New England generally favored Adams.

spoil system

President Jackson did not initiate the spoils system (rewarding of supporters with government jobs), but he did defend and practice it, saying that frequent rotation in office gave more people a chance to serve in the government.

9. Why did President Jackson veto the Maysville Road Bill

He vetoed the Maysville Road Bill because he opposed federal support for internal improvements, and because he felt that the government's money should not be profitted off of by the people. He also believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

10. What section of the United States tended to oppose tariffs?

The South, mainly South Carolina (South Carolina residents said that the tariff favored the North over the South)

15. Why did Jackson veto the re-chartering of the Bank of the United States?

He thought that the investors should not be able to make a profit off of a government institution (the Bank of the U.S.)

16. Pet Banks

State-chartered banks that received federal government deposits from the Second Bank (President Jackson was trying to make the Second Bank go bankrupt by regulating this.)

17. What did President Jackson do in his war on the Bank of the United States

Answer directly above, plus the following: the petbanks extended more credit and issued more bank notes, which led to a period of economic expansion, reckless speculaton, and rapid inflation.

18. What is the difference between hard and soft money?

Hard Money: specie Soft Money: paper. Soft money Democrats resented the bank's role in periodically contracting credit and restricting the lending activities of state banks. They were the more popular position. Hard money counterparts disliked the bank because it sanctioned an economy based on paper money.

19. Who were the Loco Focos of New York?

They were Democrats who were opposed to the use of paper money and feared economic inflation.

20. Who was the main opposition to Andrew Jackson during the second term in office? (political party name)

The Whig party

21. Which of the following groups would not have supported the Whig party during the Jacksonian era?

The groups that SUPPORTED the Whig Party were: commercial farmers, planters, merchants, and bankers. In the North they were SUPPORTED by: reformers, evangelical clergymen (especially Presbyterians and Congregationalists), Anti-Masons, and manufactures. In the South they were SUPPORTED by former nullificationists, even Calhoun was a Whig for a while.

22. Specie Circular

A proclamation issued by Jackson in July 1836, which provided that only specie was to be accepted in payment for public lands. It was one of Jackson's final affirmations of his belief that paper money encouraged people to embark on speculative "get-rich-quick schemes". He hoped it would reverse the damaging effects of the Deposit Act of 1836. The specie Circular made banks hesitant to issue more paper money.

23. What contributed to the Depression of 1837?

The Specie Circular, Britain checking the flow of specie from its shore to the U.S. in 1836, the Independent Treasury Act of 1840, the banks, and paper money.

24. In the late 1830's and early 1840's what group believed that the end of the world was coming?

The Millerites

25. Which political party had become the anti-Bank/hard money party by 1840?

The Democrats

26. What was the purpose of the independent treasury advocated by President Van Buren?

Was instead of depositing its money in banks, which would then use federal funds as the basis for speculative loans, the government would hold its revenue and keep them from the grasp of corruption. Reflected an alliance between government and banking, but it failed to address the banking issue on the state level.

27. Why did Vice President Van Buren lose the election of 1840?

He lost due to unpopularity caused by the Depression that occurred during his first term.

28. What was the main cause of the great increase in the popular vote between the 1830-1840 presidential elections?

The 60% increase in the popular vote was mainly caused by popular campaign techniques that were pioneered by the Democrats in the previous decade.

29. The period of revivalism that swept the nation in early years of the 19th century was known as what?

The second great awakening

30. The belief that people can live without sin was called what?

Perfectionism

31. What did Unitarians believe?

(Attracted wealth/education) Jesus was less than fully divine. Good orals could be cultivated though character building model life on Jesus not some religious revival. Believe human behavior could be changed for the better.

32. Why can Mormonism be described as "pushing against the current of American religion and society"?

Mormon practice of polygon, smith's self-image(2nd Mohammed) they separated from society (were not accepted by gentiles(non-Mormons)

33. Noteworthy tenants of the Shakers?

Mother Ann lee started the religion. The name came from a convulsive religious dance that was part of their ceremony.. Invented clothespin. Believed highly in abstinence from sex. God contain both male and female elements mainly lived apart from society and believed in economic individualism

34. Reform movements of the age of Andrew Jackson?

Abolition of slavery, women's rights, temperance, better treatment of insane and criminals, public education, est. of utopian communities

35. Why did temperance reformers make one of their main targets the moderate drinkers among the working class?

Working class families Manufactory owners wanted workers that were not drunk all the time - wanted good workers

36. What did the goals of the School Reform movement tin the age of Jackson include?

Equip children for emerging competitive and industrial economy. Horace Mann wanted to shift burden of financial support from parents-states, grading, schools, extending school term, introducing standardized textbooks, compelling attendance

37. Who was the most famous and controversial abolitionist?

William Lloyd Garrison

38. What did most white abolitionists want?

They wanted to end slavery-but they didn't want social equality (mostly women supported the reform)

39. The gag rule was repealed in 1845 largely because of the efforts of whom?

Tabled abolitionist petitions and thus prevented discussion of them in congress

40. What did the Seneca Falls Declaration call for?

"all men and women are created equal" women wanted to right to vote/ various other rights

41. What was one of the major reasons of the changing attitudes toward poverty, crime, and insanity in the early 19th century?

People believed that poverty, crime, etc, starts with parents without strict moral values - you would end up in prison instead of throwing people in prison try to fix them

42. Most founders of the Utopian community believed that what?

They could live in a perfect community Perfectionism a way of life that was superior t others all short lived

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