Why did Kennedy feel as though he had something to prove in his relations with the USSR?
1. He had been elected in 1961 on a promise of being tough of on communism.
2 He had been humiliated by Khrushchev twice:
a) The Vienna Summit - Khrushchev banging his shoe.
b) Berlin and the building of the wall.
3. Kennedy could do very little to challenge the Berlin Wall.
Why did Khrushcev think that Kennedy would be a pushover interms of American foreign policy?
1. Kennedy had made some rookie mistakes: Bay of Pigs
2. Kennedy was very inexperienced and didn't appreciate what Western Europeans felt - CND
How did Khrushchev try to exploit Kennedy's weaknesses?
1. He put the missiles in Cuba to see how much America would put up with.
2. It would make America know what it feels like to have nuclear weapons on its doorstep like the USSR did - Turkey.
How did Kennedy respond to the threat of more nuclear missiles being delivered to Cuba?
1. Kenedy's advisers gave him 7 options:
a) allow the USSR to keep the bases
b) Protest diplomatically
c) Negotiate with Castro
d) Place a blockade around Cuba
e) Bomb Cuba with non-nuclear weapons.
f) Invade Cuba
g) Launch a nuclear attack.
How did Kennedy evaluate the options given to him in response to the missiles arriving from the USSR to Cuba?
1. a & b were not considered, c was unlikely as Castro wouldn't negotiate.
2. e,f & g would cost too many lives.
3. This left d: Place a blockade around Cuba.
What did Kennedy do about the threat of more missiles by being ?
1. On 22 Oct 1962 Kennedy announced a blockade of Cuba.
2. It would be enforced by the US navy.
How did the world react to the Cuban blockade?
1. People thought nuclear war could happen any time.
2. Kennedy did consider bombing Cuba with non nuclear weapons or invade Cube.
3. After the Vienna Summit and Berlin Wall, people thought Khrushchev would take a hard line over Cuba
What happened as Soviet ships came closer to America?
1. On 24 Oct the first US ships confronted the USSR ships.
2. If Khrushchev ordered his ships to defy the blockade, it threatened nuclear war.
3. Khrushchev ordered the Soviet ships to turn around and avoid confrontation.
Did the turning round of the Soviet Navy mean an end to the Cuban Missile crisis?
1. No - Kennedy still wanted the missiles on Cuba to be removed.
2. The Soviets searched an American boat and found parts for nuclear bombs/ The USSR shot down a U2 spy plane over Cuba.
3. Kennedy was advised to attack Cuba in retaliation but he refused.
What happened to break the stalemate in the Cuban Missile Crisis?
On Oct 26 & 27, Khrushchev sent Kennedy 2 telegrams:
a) The first offered to remove Soviet missile's from Cuba.
b) The second one asked for the US to remove nuclear missiles from Turkey.
How did Kennedy react to Khrushchev's telegrams of Oct 26 & 27?
1. He ignored the second telegram.
2. To the first one he accepted the offer and gave Khrushchev two days to reply.
3. If Khrushchev didn't reply, Kennedy said he would be forced to invade Cuba.
How did Khrushchev react to Kennedy's ultimatum?
1. On 28 Oct, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
2. Privately, Kennedy agreed to remove the missiles from Turkey.
3. on 3 Nov the Soviet Missiles were being removed & by 20 Nov the US naval blockade of Cuba was over.
What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the rest of the world?
1. It frightened the world's leaderships, who were panicked for two weeks about nuclear war.
2. The calls for more co operation between the USA and the USSR increased.
What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the Americans?
1. Kennedy could claim that he had stood up to the Soviets, especially after the earlier humiliations.
2. They had got rid of the ,issiles from Cuba.
3. They also realised that they work with the Soviets to avoid a similar situation in the future.
What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the USSR?
1. Khrushchev could claim he had guaranteed the safety of communist Cuba.
2. He had got the Americans to remove the missiles on Turkey.
What changes did the Cuban Missile Crisis have in east-west relations?
1. It meant that America and the Soviets would need to agree to work together in the future.
2. Each side realised they couldn't interfere in the other's 'sphere of influence'.
3. A direct telephone line was set up to keep Moscow and Washington in permenent contact.- 'The Hot Line'.