How close to war was the world in the 1960s? A) The Cuban Missile Crisis
|Why did Kennedy feel as though he had something to prove in his relations with the USSR?|| 1. He had been elected in 1961 on a promise of being tough of on communism.|
2 He had been humiliated by Khrushchev twice:
a) The Vienna Summit - Khrushchev banging his shoe.
b) Berlin and the building of the wall.
3. Kennedy could do very little to challenge the Berlin Wall.
|Why did Khrushcev think that Kennedy would be a pushover interms of American foreign policy?|| 1. Kennedy had made some rookie mistakes: Bay of Pigs|
2. Kennedy was very inexperienced and didn't appreciate what Western Europeans felt - CND
|How did Khrushchev try to exploit Kennedy's weaknesses?|| 1. He put the missiles in Cuba to see how much America would put up with.|
2. It would make America know what it feels like to have nuclear weapons on its doorstep like the USSR did - Turkey.
|How did Kennedy respond to the threat of more nuclear missiles being delivered to Cuba?|| 1. Kenedy's advisers gave him 7 options:|
a) allow the USSR to keep the bases
b) Protest diplomatically
c) Negotiate with Castro
d) Place a blockade around Cuba
e) Bomb Cuba with non-nuclear weapons.
f) Invade Cuba
g) Launch a nuclear attack.
|How did Kennedy evaluate the options given to him in response to the missiles arriving from the USSR to Cuba?|| 1. a & b were not considered, c was unlikely as Castro wouldn't negotiate.|
2. e,f & g would cost too many lives.
3. This left d: Place a blockade around Cuba.
|What did Kennedy do about the threat of more missiles by being ?|| 1. On 22 Oct 1962 Kennedy announced a blockade of Cuba. |
2. It would be enforced by the US navy.
|How did the world react to the Cuban blockade?|| 1. People thought nuclear war could happen any time.|
2. Kennedy did consider bombing Cuba with non nuclear weapons or invade Cube.
3. After the Vienna Summit and Berlin Wall, people thought Khrushchev would take a hard line over Cuba
|What happened as Soviet ships came closer to America?|| 1. On 24 Oct the first US ships confronted the USSR ships.|
2. If Khrushchev ordered his ships to defy the blockade, it threatened nuclear war.
3. Khrushchev ordered the Soviet ships to turn around and avoid confrontation.
|Did the turning round of the Soviet Navy mean an end to the Cuban Missile crisis?|| 1. No - Kennedy still wanted the missiles on Cuba to be removed.|
2. The Soviets searched an American boat and found parts for nuclear bombs/ The USSR shot down a U2 spy plane over Cuba.
3. Kennedy was advised to attack Cuba in retaliation but he refused.
|What happened to break the stalemate in the Cuban Missile Crisis?|| On Oct 26 & 27, Khrushchev sent Kennedy 2 telegrams:|
a) The first offered to remove Soviet missile's from Cuba.
b) The second one asked for the US to remove nuclear missiles from Turkey.
|How did Kennedy react to Khrushchev's telegrams of Oct 26 & 27?|| 1. He ignored the second telegram.|
2. To the first one he accepted the offer and gave Khrushchev two days to reply.
3. If Khrushchev didn't reply, Kennedy said he would be forced to invade Cuba.
|How did Khrushchev react to Kennedy's ultimatum?|| 1. On 28 Oct, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.|
2. Privately, Kennedy agreed to remove the missiles from Turkey.
3. on 3 Nov the Soviet Missiles were being removed & by 20 Nov the US naval blockade of Cuba was over.
|What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the rest of the world?|| 1. It frightened the world's leaderships, who were panicked for two weeks about nuclear war.|
2. The calls for more co operation between the USA and the USSR increased.
|What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the Americans?|| 1. Kennedy could claim that he had stood up to the Soviets, especially after the earlier humiliations.|
2. They had got rid of the ,issiles from Cuba.
3. They also realised that they work with the Soviets to avoid a similar situation in the future.
|What was the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the USSR?|| 1. Khrushchev could claim he had guaranteed the safety of communist Cuba.|
2. He had got the Americans to remove the missiles on Turkey.
|What changes did the Cuban Missile Crisis have in east-west relations?|| 1. It meant that America and the Soviets would need to agree to work together in the future.|
2. Each side realised they couldn't interfere in the other's 'sphere of influence'.
3. A direct telephone line was set up to keep Moscow and Washington in permenent contact.- 'The Hot Line'.