nomadic herders that moved through the desert to reach good land for camels, goats, and sheep
market town at crossroad of caravaan routes; Muhammad born 570 CE
"city of the prophet" aka Medna; Muhammad traveled 622 CE; city accepted his teachings; Muhammad's journey = hijra
Hijra is the flight that Muhammad took in 622 CE from Mecca to Yathrib after being threateneed by Meccans for rejecting traditional Gods. this was year one of the muslim calendar
a temple with Pagan god statues in Mecca that in 630 CE was destroyed by Muhammad and turned into a temple for Allah
sacred text of Islam
house of worship where Muslims can go to pray
pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the 5 pillars
struggle in Gods service; interpreted as personal duty or holy war by community
body of law that interprets; regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, gov't, etc.
five Pillars of Islam
five basic duties of all observant muslims; 1) declaration of faith 2) pray 5 times a day 3) give charity to poor 4) fast during Ramadan 5) make hajj
Why does Muhammad begin teaching what will later become the Qur'an?
at around 570 CE he has a crisis about life and meditates; he then is visited by Gabriel and will be visited several times again
why was Muhammad's overthrow of Mecca so important?
Mecca was a market town that wasn't very safe (ie had to lay down weapons when you got there) and people only went for the purpose of trade. when Muhammad overturned the Kaaba people stopped coming because people come b/c there are religious people to sell to at the Kaaba; religious people got angry because Muhammad was telling them that their faith was wrong
what was important about the hijra?
NOTE: 622 CE the hijra is the FLIGHT from Mecca to Yathrib; Yathrib welcomes Muhammad because they think he can help them with their trade problem and thinks that if Muhammad's religion is successful, it will weaken Mecca and strengthen Yathrib so he gains followers
what happens in 630 CE?
Muhammad returns to Mecca and conquers it; turns the Kaaba into a shrine for Islam; and symbol of creation of new religion and old religion gone
Abu Bakr was the first caliph of Muhammad in _______ during ____.
A caliph is a successor to Muhammad. At around 632 CE at the time of Muhammad's death, two groups named the Sunnis and the Shiites formed because of dissagreements in who should become the first caliph (mention Sunnis believe a good ruler while Shiites believed they should have a blood relation)
believed that the caliph should be someone who is a political leader and who is capable of the job
believed that the caliph should be blood related to Muhammad through Ali
Schism is a formal division or seperation. In 634 CE a schism occurs in Islam over who should be next caliph, and causes the formation of the Sunnis, who believed that the caliph should be someone who is capable, and the Shiites, who believed the caliph should be blood related through Ali.
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, etc; believed to have miraculous powers, respected for piety; spread Islam by traveling, preaching,, and being good examples; went to villages and mixed local traditions and beliefs into Muslim culture
what is 622 CE known as?
1 AH (anno hijra) first year of the Muslim calendar
what's important to understand about the Islam religion?
they share the old testament; call God Allah; Christians, Jews, & Muslims believe in same God; Allah is personal God; it's a universal faith (offered to all) - anyone who follows the 5 pillars can be muslim; Islam is democratic; the nature of belief is between the individual believer and Allah (no priest mediates); Islam is a way of life (religious law is political law); law of kingdoms structured by Islamic law; Qur'an has poetic language in Arabic
what is one major difference between the Sunnis and the Shiites?
The Sunnis find separation of church and state more acceptable, while the Shiites are opposed to it; Sunni's tend to be less fundamental
What was the battle of tours and when was it?
732 CE Battle of Tours stops Muslim advance into France; come close to taking over Constantinople and move as far east into Persia; this caused a massive conquer & conversion of territory which caused a massive sweep
when was the Umayyad dynasty?
661 CE to about 750
what were the reasons for the Umayyad's dynasty success?
1) the Byzantine and Persians relatively weak; people under power who aren't Persian or Byzantine were welcoming to the Muslims 2) their fighting units were mobile - this convinced people that they must have God on side for having so many military conquers
what were the reasons for the Umayyad dynasty's decline?
1) bureaucracy not used as well
2) succumb to corruption
when was the Abbasid dynasty?
750 CE until 1258 CE (dominant period was 750 - 950 CE)
what are the Abbasids known for?
develop a complex bureaucracy that'll help them in the future; big in promoting scholarly study and culture; begin philosophical flowering; technological and math achievements
a Seljuk ruler
what happens after Abu Bakr's death?
another succession problem
ability to move up in social class
what were the steps that created a vast trading network?
2) bought and sold on credit
3) banks create the first checking system
4) spread of manufactured goods
5) Arabic becomes common language
a group of people making a business together
what is important about using credit?
buying and selling things on credit facilitated trade and helped people looking to start a business because you could borrow money to open business and pay it back once you get going
what is important about the banks?
because they were set up all over the trade route, you could put money in one bank and take it out in another; this also allowed for the conversion of currencies
groups of manufacture artisans that work together; functions as monopoly; each has own shop (ex: all shoemakers in town form guild)
what do guilds do?
regulate prices, methods of production (less important), regulate weights and measures, standards/quality control
what is the guilds primary purpose?
to protect guild members by protecting what people can apprentice/master so that the number of blacksmiths wouldn't get greater than what supplies for pots could demand; won't let anyone be pot makers because then there will be too much supply & prices will go down (controlling supply side & protecting income of members) guarantee good quality b/c certain standards to get in
a physician who created a medical encyclopedia
one of the first modern historians who examined different sources for reliable account of historic events & looked for social and economic causes for things; interviewed and read accounts of different data for different people "scientific study of history"
Ibn Rushd (Averroës)
a philosopher who subjected all knowledge to reason EXCEPT qur'an; brought Aristotle to the West; iMPORTANT: translations of Aristotle make it to Europe because of Rushd (people begin to understand Aristotle's teachings)
mathematician who set the standard for algebra
a physician who came up with the idea to treat mind and body of a patient; care for your patients physiological part of treatment as well
what is significant about Muslim artists?
artists don't depict people on walls of mosque for two reasons: 1) it's disrespectful to God because God created the people 2) people are creation of God, blasphemy to try and depict it; instead of using people, they draw geometric designs meant to represent the order of God's creation; math is a way of decorating but also enables scientists to understand world
local Hindu leader
Babur was the creator of the Mughal dynasty who destroyed the Dehli Sultanate in 1526 CE in ______. As the first Mughal ruler, Babur
promote religious toleration until Aurangzeb's rule
Akhbar was the first caliph of the Mughal dynasty in India from 1556 to 1605 CE. As caliph, Akhbar's most important contribution was his promotion of religious toleration. He opened government jobs to people of all religions, ended the tax on non-Muslims, and also married a Hindu princess, which taught the Hindus he was serious about his toleration. In addition to promoting religious toleration, Akhbar modernized the army, standardized weights and measures, and created land reforms that helped keep the empire functioning. Akhbar laid the foundation for the Mughal dynasty that allowed it to last almost 250 years after his rule, in 1857 CE, despite bad rulers.
the wife of Akhbar's son Janangir who was the most powerful woman in Indian history until the 20th century
grandson of Akhbar who creates Taj Mahal for his wife and is then overrun by his son Aurangzeb
tomb built for Mumtaz Mahal; greatest monumnet of Mughal empire
What does Ockham's razor state?
the best explanation is the one that requires the fewest assumptions for the explanation to work
uses the experimental method to discover how sight works (experimental method is big, not how sight works); the experimental method involves observation and data/experiments which was best because it was the dominant way of thinking for ex a floating chair? "where are the strings?"; experimental method was used to discover things
Suleiman the Great **
Suleiman the Great was a ruler of the Ottoman empire from 1520 to 1566 CE in the area of modern day Turkey. As a good ruler, Suleiman created a ruling council and Grand Vizier to give him honest input on what they thought about how he was handling a situation. By doing this, he improved the system of justice. Along with this, Suleiman modernized the army, promoted religious toleration, and opened social classes. He created mullets, or religious communities, that had control over their local education and laws, which helped promote toleration. For social classes, each had specific legal rights, and the two lower social classes were open to those other than Muslims.
His long term significance is that he laid the foundation that allows the Ottoman empire to last despite bad rulers.
elite force of the Ottoman army
dynasty that united empire in Persia in the 1500s
Shah Abbas the Great
centralized government, created powerful military force, reduced taxes on farmers and herders/encouraged growth of industry; religious toleration; used diplomacy and force against Ottomans
what is the problem with the blood relation ruler system?
the power goes from the father to the first born son; just because dad is good and competent doesn't mean the son is so this leads to corruptio in the Mughal dynasty
what does gunpowder do to the three dynasties?
the Dehli sultanate, Mughal dynasty, and Ottoman empire use gunpowder in battle which gives an advantage to the infantry because it doesn't matter if a guy is on a horse or not, you can still kill him