Chapter 12 Test - DNA and RNA

26 terms by BiologyWeymouthHS

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transcription

copying the code from DNA onto mRNA

codon

three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid

translation

process by which a ribosome uses the code on mRNA to make proteins

chromatin

DNA that is coiled around proteins

amino acid

building block of a protein

mRNA

type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

polypeptide

chain of amino acids

replication

process in which DNA is duplicated

rRNA

type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

mutation

a change or error in the DNA sequence

tRNA

type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

DNA

nucleic acid that transmits hereditary information

gene

section of DNA that codes for a protein

chromosome

tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division

point mutation

change in a single nucleotide

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism due to proteins

enzyme

protein that speeds up chemical reactions

nucleic acid

biological macromolecule that stores genetic information; made of nucleotides

protein

organic molecule that makes up cell structures and controls chemical reactions

double helix

twisted ladder shape of DNA

nucleotide

building block of a nucleic acid

deoxyribose

5-carbon sugar in DNA

ribose

5-carbon sugar in RNA

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between A and T, and C and G

ribosome

cell structure that makes proteins

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