King Louis XVI
Lack of food
consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes. They were radically divided.
assembly of the estates of all France
the commoners of French society prior to the revolution. the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers and artisans, and peasants.
Balance of Power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful. (p. 455)
Principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
involves the substitution of one goal for another goal in order to achieve success
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Person whose views are between conservative and liberal and may include some of both ideologies
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Invasion of Russia
Napoleon's most disastrous military campaign. Russian winter forced Napoleon to retreat, lead to his downfall
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Battle at Waterloo
Napoleon was forced to abdicate for the second time and was exiled on a lonely island, where he would not return again.
Results of Napoleon
He was exiled to St Helena
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Austrian ruler and leader of the Congress of Vienna
believed that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to go back to ways before revolution
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
a sudden overthrow of the government by force
1769-1821. French military and political leader. General during French Revolution, Ruler of France as First Consul of French Republic, King of Italy, Mediator of Swiss Confederation, and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.
French middle class
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Him and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI. She was queen during the French Revolution and was dislike by many French ciizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined.
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Storming of the Bastille
Destruction of the prison seen as the true start of the French Revolution.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
March of Versailles
Angered with the king's refusal to accept the National Assembly's decree, thousands of women with pitchforks, swords, pistols, and muskets marched to Versailles. They forced Louis to accept the new decrees, and would have torn Marie Antoinette to pieces had she not escaped.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.