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Alliteration

repetition of sounds

Medial Caesura

a middle pause in a line of poetry

Kenning

figurative phrase used as a synonym for a simple noun. (Whale-Road or Sword-Storm)

Dryhten

A lord and protector of people, like a king.

Mead-Hall

Center of Anglo-Saxon life. (Where everyone met)

Ubi Sunt

"where have they gone?" (the good ole' days)

Wyrd

"Fate" (how Anglo-saxons looked at life)

Peace-Weavers

women that married off to make peace between fighting tribes.

Epics

a long narrative poem in elevated style. Usually center around heroic style and episodes that are important to the history of the nation.

Materialism

Devotion to material wealth and possessions.

Chivalry

code of ethics for knights and gentle-woman

Courtly Love

state of adoration (Anglo-Saxon time)

Sonnet

"little sound or song"

The Italian Sonnet

14 line poem
beginning with an octave, follows with a sestet, and ends with a volta.

Octave

an 8 line section in an Italian Sonnet

Sestet

a 6 lined section in an Italian Sonnet

Volta

A "turn" in line 9 of an Italian Sonnet

The English Sonnet

3 quatrains, a turn, and couplet.

quatrains

4 line sections in the english sonnet

turn

a shift in thought in the english sonnet

couplet

a 2 line section in english sonnet

scansion

system for describing the rhythm of a poem.

rhythm

described in terms of stressed and unstressed syllables.

foot

a unit of rhythm in poetry.

full stress

when a syllable gets a heavy emphasis

light stress

when a syllable gets emphasized, but not heavily.

hovering stress

when two syllables that are next to eachother share the stress

hypersyllabic foot

when a foot of poetry has more syllables than it should.

lame foot

when there is a foot of poetry that lacks a syllable.

plosives

p,t,k,b,d

frictives

f,th,s,z,

nasals

m,n

liquids

l,r,w

soliliquy

speech delivered when speaker is alone on stage

comedy of errors

a comedy based around a series of mistakes or mishaps

romantic comedy

serious love is the chief concern

satire

Literature that ridicules human vices, weaknesses, or foolishness.

comedy of situation

focuses on ingenuity of plot rather than character

comedy of manners

Realistic comedy that makes fun of the manners and conventions of an artificial, highly sophisticated way.

tragicomedy

Plot is tragedy and ends with a happy ending

type character

character who is representative of a class or kind of person.

stock character

conventional characters.

tone

the attitude toward the subject implied by a literary work.

reconciliation

an ending of conflict or renewing of friendly relationships.

Meta

"beyond, above, of a higher logical order"

metacognition

thinking about thinking.

metafiction

a fiction about a fiction

monologic

Bahtin reasoning on imagination. people who are one voiced and look at the world in one way.

dialogic

Bahtin reasoning on imagination. People that are many voiced and have many ways of looking at the world.

subversive

trecharous, opposed to status quo or social order

text

what the script literally says.

subtext

what's implied but not stated in the text

protagonist

person who moves the story along, who the story centers around.

antagonist

person/entity/object that is the protagonists main obstacle or opposing force

foil

character who provides contrast to the protagonist, in order to emphasize the main characters traits.

tragedy

a dramatic work that tells the story of someones downfall

harmatia

the error, fraility, mistaken judgement, or misstep through which the fortunes of the hero of a tragedy are reversed.

catastrophe

climax of tragedy, usually horrific (Usually death of a hero)

catharsis

according to aristotle, tragedy "through pity and fear effects the proper purgatation of these emotions."

revenge tragedy

theme is the revenge of the death of a murdered family whose ghost directs the revenge.

tragedy of blood

works out revenge through murder, assassanation, mutilation, and carnage.

irony

when a writers says one thing but means something quite different.

sarcasm

"to tear flesh" Particularly nasty irony intended to insult or injure. Can be very personal.

satirical norm

in many satires, authors will include a character or passage that isn't ironic, sarcastic, or satirical.

rationalism

a whole bunch of modes of thought that rely on reason rather than sense perceptions, revelation, tradition, or authority.

horatian satire

gentle, urbane, smiling. Aims to correct through broadly sympathetic laughter.

dandyism

art of appearing to be a perfect gentleman

novel

only "uncompleted" genre, things in a novel are in a process of growing, developing, and changing.

the "would-be-wits"

people who think they are clever..but arn't

essay

comes from the french and literally means "to try"

the enlightment

a philosophical movement that swept through europe. signaled a shift away from old religious beliefs toward belief in science and religion.

empiricism

all knowledge comes from expierence (not belief or authority.)

humanism

broadly, and attitude that exalts humanity above the supernatural divine, or natural.

juvenalian satire

biting, bitter, angry. It points with contempt and indignation at the corruption of human beings and their institutions.

estate

a true mark of greatness for men in the Regency Period

the "fop"

man obsessed with fashion and vain about his appearance that he becomes ridiculous.

the "prude"

easily shocked and pays alot of attention to proper social behavior.

epics

see life as completed, things are decided and certain.

ontology

a branch of philosophy that's concerned with being and existance.

simile

a comparison that uses like, as, liken, resemble, etc.

metaphor

a comparison that does not use like or as

personification

ascribing human traits to something that isn't human

synecdoche

a trpe in which the part signifies the whole or the whole signifies a part

metonymy

the substitution of an object for an object closely related to it.

end-stopped lines

a line that ends grammatically at the end of the line.

enjambment

a line that continues gramatically through the end of the line.

masculine ending

a line that ends on a stressed syllable

feminine ending

a line that ends on an unstressed syllable

internal rhyme

when there are rhymes within a line (not at the end)

assonance

same or similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds

consonance

repetition of final consonant sounds

imagery

language that appeals to our sense of sight.

symbol

something that stands for something else.

hyperbole

exaggeration in a poem or story

apostrophe

a figure of speech in which someone (usally but not always absent), some abstract quality, or a nonexistent person is addressed.

frame narrative

a story within a story

interpretation

a readers articulation of the meaning of a work of literature

literal interpretation

what the book/character says.

allegorical interpretation

what the book/character represents.

moral interpretation

what the book/character teaches us about right and wrong

psychological interpretation

what the book/character represent in terms or our conscious and unconscious dreams and desires

social interpretation

what the book/character represent in a social/economic/political terms.

iambic

U /

Trochaic

/ U

Anapestic

UU/

dactylic

/UU

spondee

//

pyrrhic

UU

Antistratfordian Movement

People who think the plays of shakespeare were actually not done by him.

Sir Frances Bacon

First suspect in Antistratfordian movement.

Aesthetics

The study and philosophy of the beautiful in nature, art, and literature.

Socially Conservative

Reinforces the status quo, opposes change, favors the current political/ecomonic/social situation

Socially Radical

opposes the status quo, in favor of change, and opposes the current political/economic/social situation.

frame narrative

a story within a story

laissez-faire

"let it alone"

lyric

a brief subjective poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, and emotion, creating a single unified impression

ballad

a form of verse to be sung or recited and characterized by its presentation of a dramatic or exciting episode or simple narrative.

epistemology

the study of knowledge.

empiricism

experience of objects enables us to understand reality.

phenomenology

an object gets its meaning only through the active use of consciousness

Dialectic

The philosophical principle than an idea or event (thesis) creates its opposite (antithesis) and leads to a reconciliation of opposites (synthesis)

Dickensian

possesing the qualities or characteristics of the works of Charles Dickens

sentimentality

over indulgance in emotions. An optimistic overemphasis on the goodness of humanity

caricature

writing that exaggerates certain individual qualities of a person (often for comic effects)

literary theories

schools of thought that formulate general principals about how to interpret literature.

bildungsroman

a novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescense to maturity.

villanelle

a fixed 19-line form, originally french, employing only 2 rhymes a repeats 2 of the lines according to a set pattern.

the troubles

a period of often violent political struggle in N. Ireland, beginning in the 1960's and officially ending in 1998.

unionist

supports union of Ireland and Great Britian. Mostly protestant.

nationalist

supports independent ireland. Mostly catholic.

light verse

poetry that is humerous, comic, or witty.

non-sense verse

type of light verse that is entertaining because of its strong rhythmic quality and lack of logic. Often characterized by the presence of made-up words.

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