political geo (HG)

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state

sovereign, polotical entity that maintains status as an independant state
-country

nation

-cultural group
-geographic area thatis dominted by a large population that shares a common history and culture, regardless of whether the group owns territtory (ex. kurds, palistinians)..homeland

nation-state

-clearly defined cultural group
-political unit comprising a clearly delineated territiory where the population shares a common history and culture(ex. japan, korea, Urugay)
-nation's homeland corresponds exactly to states territory.

territory

area controlled by a state

stateless nation

a nation of people without a land to legally occupy, a nation without a state (e.g., Kurds, Palestinians, ...).

enclave

-country completly surrounded by another country (lesotho surrounded by south africa)
-an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

exclave

-a part of a country that is disconnected by land (ex. cabinga..part of angola)
(serves as a breeding ground for hostile rebel groups who want to break free and exert devolution pressure)

map of south asia

boundary

something that indicates bounds or limits
-lines that establish the limit of each authority (colleting taxes, education, legal codes)

how boundries are established

defintion
delimitation
demarcation
administration

forms of boundary disputes:

1.definitonal boundary dispute-legallanguage of boundary agreement 2.locational boundary disputes- center on the delimitation and possibly demacation of boundary
3.operational- involve neighbors who differ overtheway their borders should function
4. allocational-disagreement over rescourses by 2 countries who share smae border

political boundary

spatial limit of thepolitical organization of territory-on different scales:
UN
state
intra-state (sub divisions of territory)

centrifugal

-internal divisions in language, religion
-lack of along history in common
-state boundries that are subject todispute,
- tending away from centralization, as of authority

centripetal

-clear andwell accepted state identity
-long state history
-boundries that are clearly delimited and well accepted
-tending to unify

10 boundary types

physical boundary-physical feateures( mountains, desert, water) that seperate
geometric-straight lines that serve as political boundary regardless ofcultural differences(us/canada border)
cultural political- political boundary that seperates cultures(former yugoslavia)
language-seperates different languagespeakers (france/spain)
religious-2 different religions..interfaith( sects ofsame religion)
subsequent-created as a result of long process
superimposed-forced boundary to solve conflict (indonesia/most of africa)
antecedent-created b4 present day cutural landscape
relict-boundry that ceases to exist but still remainsin cultural landscape( north/south vietnam)
fortified-construct phical boundary (great wall of china)

Shapes of states

compact: distance from center is roughyl equal across(hungary)
elongated-long and narrow( chile)
enclave- totally surroundedby another coountry (armenia)
fragmented- split into many pieces( phillipines)
landlocked- not having direct acess to ocean (bolivia)
microstate- extremlysmall( marino or monoco)
perforated- totally surroundsanother country (south africa)
prorupt- portion of country elongated(thailand)

frontier

zone where no state excerise political control
(antartica, portions of saudi arabia)

geopolitics

study of spatial and territorial dimentsions ofpowerrelationships within the global political-terrtitorial order.
-attempts to explain whysome countries have power and others dont
-how states acquire power

3 classical geopolitical theories

organic ( German)
heartland(british)
rimland(American)

organic theory

friedrich ratzel-saidthat a state is comparable to a biological organism bc a state has to be born develop and die
-says that a country needs noursiment tosurvive ( acuqiring territory and recources)
-hitler used theory as justificationfor nazis expansion

lebensraum

living space

atrophy

death( state will atrophy if it does not expand)

heartland theory

-sir halford Mackinder believed land basedpower not naval/sea power would rule theworldcountries dont need navy to move armies
-focus of warfare should be to the interior-hearland..not sea
-"pivot area" northern and interiorparts of eurasia
-he who controls the heartland, controls the world island(africa and eurasia)..and if he controls that..hecontrols the world

gerrymandering

process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power

terrorism

the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature

Rimland theory

Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal "rims" of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest...not the heart;;believed both sea and land power were important

whats rimland?

includes: western europe, middleeast, south asia, southeastasia, and far east
-cold war polcy makers used it to justify containment

world system theory

immanual Wallerstein(sociologist not geographer)
3 tenets:
1. world econ has 1 market(trade) and global division of labor
2.although therearemany states, everyhting takes place within context of world economy
3.world econ has 3 tiers( core, perphery, semi-perphery)

core area

advanced area of world econ.. strong structure..they exploit the peripheheral stattes

peripheral

weakstates either colonialstates owwith loow degree of autonomy

semi-peripheral

states that act as buffer zone bewtwen core and peripheral (ex. india, brazil, south africa)

crtitism of world system theory

refelects a determnistic point ofview
he did not factor priordominance ofchina
peripheral never catchup with core

strasburg

international capital bringstogetherEU..unifies..shows supernationalism

core areas

refers to center..national heartland
has largestpopulation cluster
-greatest ACCESSIBLITY and CENTRALITY
may contain capital
(ex. paris basin and cairo-alexandria, and nile delta)

multicore state

poseess more than one core area
may present problems if ethnically diverse (ex. nigeria)
might work(Us, boston..washington..chicago)

capital city

political nerve of a city
national headquarters
center of national life
used interchangably with state name

primate city

a countries largerst most econmicly influential city
most expressive of nations cuture
NO OTHER CITY COMES CLOSE TO IT IN TERMS OF SIZE AND INFLUENCE(london, paris, nairobi)

forward city

relocation of national capitla for national objectives(brasilla,brazil)
japan

exclusive economic zone (EEZ)

up to 200mm
right to explore conserve and managenatural recources both livingand nonliving in waters

suprnationalism

collection of individual states with a commongoal thatmay be econ or poltical in nature
diminishes soveriegty in favor for collective interests ofentire membership
(ex. EU countries..adoption of single currency..UN, NATO,NAFTA)

goals of suprnationalism

economic
political
military
cultural

status of eu:

27 countries
crtieria to get in:
stable democracy, functioning econ, civil service ofapplying to
EU rules and standards

maritime boundry

Un law of the sea convention..
delimits:
terrtiotirial sea..contiguous..EEZ

why has terrorism increased?

???????

beneleux countries

netherland
belgium
luxemburg
(created after ww2)

what does the EU do?

fronteierfree single market
eurocurrency
support for LDC
freedom to move-no passport
invest inscience and tech, food equality

UN

established in 1945 in san fransico California
to end future wars
promote human rights,economic, socialdevelopment
after league of nations..(WHO..UNICEF)

un structure

general assembly
swcurity council
secretariat

devolution

movement ofpower from the central government toregional governments within the state

forces of devolution

ethnoationalism- ehtnicgroups see tehmselves as distictnation..want tocontrol terrtitory
(ex.french canada)
economic- poor regions feel disadvantaged(ex. italy, spain, brazil)
spatial- problems that occur at edges or boundries of states
devolution aided by distance, remoteness, andperipheral location
(taiwan,china..sardina, italy... hawaii and pura rico, US)

median line principle

according to the UNCLOS, the EEZ for maritime countries located closer to each other than 200 miles is located halfway in between.

nationalism

the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other

patriotism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

raison d'etre

reason for being, reason or justification for existing

multistate nation

nation that transcends the borders of two or more states (e.g., Kurds (Kurdistan), The Koreas,...).

multinational state

State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

irredentism

The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.

unitary state

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

federal state

An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

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