The process by which we encode, store and retrieve info
recording of info
info save and stored
recovery of stored info
the initial momentary storage of info, lasting only an instant
reflects information from the visual
stores auditory info coming from the ears.
Short term memory
memory that holds info for 15 - 20 sec.
a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit
the repetition of info that has entered short term memory
Elaborative rehearsal -
occurs when the info is considered an organized in some fashion.
firnak techniques for organizing info in a way that makes it more likely to remembered.
Declarative memory -
memory for factual info: names, faces, dates, and the like.
- for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball.
Semantic memory -
memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
Episodic memory -
memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context
3 brain structure & Memory
- Hippocampus - part of the brain's limbic system and plays a central role in the consolidation of memory. It aids in the initial encoding info, acting as a kind of neurological e-mal system
-Amygdale - involved with memories involving emotions.
memories become fixed and stable in long term memory
develop a drug treatment that can temporarily block intense memories from forming
- a drug that is known to have an effect on areas of the brain that are responsible for memory storage.
occurs in which items presented early in a list are remembered better.
in which items presented late in a list are remembered best.
a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily info that is in long term memory.
...- the inability to recall info that one realizes one knows, a result of the difficulty of retrieving info from long term memory
memory task in which specific info must be retrieved
...- memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.
- the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed.
...- intentional or conscious recollection of info.
memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior.
Flash bulb memories
... - memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event (accuracy very bad)
Eyewitness accuracy & weapons present
...-Not accrate because people are look at the weapon instead of the event or persons face
Autobiographical memories & accuracy
our recollection of circumstances and episodes from our own lives. (inaccurate)
Ebbinghaus & rate of forgetting
Ebbinghaus studied the memorization of nonsense syllables, such as "WID" and "ZOF". By repeatedly testing himself after various time periods and recording the results, he was the first to describe the shape of the forgetting curve.
- the loss of info in memory through its non-use
- interference in which info learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material.
- interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of info learned earlier because of later exposure to different material.
- an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems.
- amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event.
- amnesia in which memory is lost for for events that follow an injury.
- a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and tendency to repeat the same story.
a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related info, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept