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What represents a food choice based on negative association?

An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food

By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?

Water

What is an example of a micronutrient?

Vitamin C

Approximately how many nutrients are considered indispensable in the diet?

40

Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, which is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carbohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?

70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate

What type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient?

Secondary

All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except

wrong = completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent.
correct
a. earning an undergraduate degree.
b. completing approximately 60 semester hours in nutrition and food science.
c. passing a national examination administered by the American Dietetic Association.

Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?

fiber
the 6 classes are:
Inorganic- minerals, water
Organic - carbs, lipids (fats), proteins, vitamins

What is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?

Laboratory tests

What nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram?

Plant fats

What is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?

Some become dissolved in body fluids

What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment?

All subjects receive a treatment

What statement defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?

The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease

What is characteristic of an essential nutrient?

Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body

A term that describes a food that doesn't provide health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution is

phytonutritional food.

As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. What is the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?

Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests

Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a

positive correlation

All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except

this does not apply - the recommendations also apply to sick people.
These are right -
a. the recommendations are designed to be met through intake of foods and not supplements.
b. it is difficult and unnecessary to meet the recommended intakes for all nutrients each day.
c. the recommendations are neither minimum requirements nor necessarily optimal intakes for everybody.

Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?

four

A clinical trial must involve

human beings as subjects.

All of the following are results of making poor food choices except

these are the results of bad food choices -
a. over the long term, they will reduce lifespan in some people.
b. they can promote heart disease and cancer over the long term.
c. over the long term, they will not affect lifespan in some people.
Correct Response
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health

The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges.

Inspection of hair, eyes, skin, and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as

physical examination

Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called

risk factors

A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?

220

What does the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of a nutrient represent?

The maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people

What is are leading causes of death in the U.S. does not bear a relationship to diet?

Pneumonia and influenza

The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his

values

Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients?

minerals

What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?

Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group

Which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy?

Because a large number of people are overweight, the figures are set to induce a gradual weight loss in most individuals

Approximately how much water (lbs) would be found in a 120-lb person?

72

What is not a characteristic of vitamins?

Inorganic

What is a result of the metabolism of energy nutrients?

Energy is released

What set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance?

Estimated Energy Requirement

What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?

The National Nutrition Monitoring program

You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently?

Prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects

RDA and the AI share the same feature except for

neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.

What is the weight (lbs) of the "reference" adult male?

154

This is not a characteristic of minerals?

Unstable to light

A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?

19

What best describes a college-educated nutrition and food specialist who is qualified to make evaluations of the nutritional health of people?

Registered dietitian

What is an example of a macronutrient?

protein

The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally

designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.

Excluding fast-food establishments, approximately what percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis?

60

International units of energy are expressed in

kilojoules

What describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advice to the public?

A license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states

How are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set?

High, to cover virtually all healthy individuals

An increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a

negative correlation.

Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as

peer review

How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?

13

What is a major weakness of a laboratory-based study?

The results cannot be applied to human beings

All of the following sets of values are included in the Dietary Reference Intakes except

these are included -
AI.
RDA.
EAR.
not included Correct response is
LUT.

Which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR?

50%

Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?

Registered dietitian

What is the AMDR for fat?

20-35%

What is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?

headaches

What is an organic compound?

Vitamin C

A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that

is in the early stages.

In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as

epidemiological studies.

A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on

emotional comfort.

What cannot add fat to the body?

Inorganic nutrients

If a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately how many grams of protein would be ingested?

219

To identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use this parameter?

Laboratory tests

What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?

Chance variation is ruled out

All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except

Correct answer
Who's Who in Nutrition.
these are credibile sources -
a. the Food and Drug Administration.
b. the American Dietetic Association.
c. the United States Department of Agriculture.

The study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed

nutritional genomics.

The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every

3-5 days

Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)

anecdote

The most common causes of death today in the United States doesn't include

TB

A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:

The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.

A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as

positive association.

The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to

plan and evaluate diets for healthy people.

Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?

body weight

What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?

45-65%

A normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams?

100

calcium.

is not a macronutrient

How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?

16

What represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?

Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs

A child who developed a strong dislike of noodle soup after consuming some when she was sick with flu is an example of a food-related

negative association

Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as

moderation

What is an enrichment nutrient for grains?

folate

A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?

Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring

Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately

2000

What is not a typical characteristic of a vegetarian?

their zinc absorption is efficient due to their high soy intake.

A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a

nutrient claim.

General features of legumes doesn't include

they are high in fat.

The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient

fortification

What is allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?

Milk products and plant foods only

What is a characteristic of enriched grain products?

They have all of the added nutrients listed on the label

According to food labeling laws, acceptable synonyms for nonfat milk does not include

no-fat milk

What is a flexitarian?

A vegetarian who occasionally eats small amounts of meat

By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is

8 fl oz

What is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?

The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may have low bioavailability

What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?

Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety

What is the most calcium-dense food?

nonfat milk

What foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?

Jam

Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?

"This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"

Documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet doesn't include

lower rates of anemia.

What term describes a food that resembles and substitutes for another food but is nutritionally inferior to it?

Imitation food

What is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005?

Engage in regular physical activities

Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with

diabetes

Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately

6 oz

Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?

400-500

According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of

nutrient-dense foods.

Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Guide.
Breakfast
2 eggs, 1 tsp margarine,
2 slices enriched white bread, 1 c whole milk, coffee
Lunch
2 oz tuna fish, lettuce, 1 tbsp mayonnaise, 2 slices enriched white bread, 1 apple
Supper
3 oz hamburger meat, 1 oz cheese, 1/2 c cooked rice, 1/2 c carrots, coffee
Which of the following describes the nutritional value of the fruits and vegetables in this menu?

A source of vitamin C is marginal

A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?

cornstarch

Legumes are used as meat alternatives but not for this reason

they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.

According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has not been found for this following health claim regarding nutrition and disease

sugar and diabetes.

Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels doesn't include

the amount recommended for ingestion each day.

Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?

They can be made without any FDA approval

Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?

nuts

In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?

fats

The "5 to 9 a Day" food campaign promotes increased consumption of

fruits and vegetables.

What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?

Vitamins A and C

Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?

33

The most highly fortified foods on the market are

breakfast cereals

ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?

Tofu

In reference to protein what term is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?

round

Applying the principle of variety in food planning ensures the benefits of

dilution of harmful substances

Approximately how many milliliters constitute a fluid ounce?

30

What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?

starch

What is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?

They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient

What is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?

Vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently

Textured vegetable protein is usually made of

soy protein

What is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?

Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12

What is not a feature of the process of nutrient enrichment of flours?

Fiber levels are similar to those in the whole grains

The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?

kCalorie control

The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most

sedentary women

What is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?

Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment

An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains

excess energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.

What type of bread has the highest fiber content?

Whole-wheat

Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?

30

The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the

endosperm

Whole-grain flour doesn't contain what part of the grain?

Husk

What is an example of a food that could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?

Legumes

In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for

Iron

What is an example of a food that qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?

Yogurt with 150 mg of calcium

What is not an example of legumes?

potatoes

What is not descriptive of MyPyrimid?

A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet

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