This Layer (or tunic) of the Blood Vessel wall is Composed of Smooth Muscle and Elastin:
The Tunica Media contains Smooth Muscle and Elastin
What special adaptation in veins prevents the backflow of blood as it travels toward the heart?
Venous one-way valves prevent backflow
Which has more smooth muscle, but less elastin, and delivers blood to specific organs?
Which Artery provides the greatest resistance to flow?
Arterioles Provide the Greatest Resistance to Flow
The dicrotic notch represents the brief interruption of smooth blood flow caused by the backflow of blood that closes which valve?
The Aortic semilunar
The first sound you hear through the stethoscope as pressure in the cuff is released is recorded as:
Applying norepinephrine to a blood vessel would alter which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?
An increase in fatty tissue affects which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?
Arteriosclerosis will alter which of the following factors, thus increasing blood pressure?
If there is a decrease in blood volume, what would be the effect on blood pressure (BP)?
BP would decrease
Sympathetic stimulation to the heart would alter heart rate, thus __________ cardiac output:
How would stimulation of the vagus nerve alter cardiac output (CO)?
Decrease in CO caused by decreased heart rate
How would increasing stroke volume (SV) alter cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure (BP)?
Increased CO and increased BP
Administering angiotensin II to your patient would __________ the patient's blood pressure.
The long-term mechanism for regulation of blood pressure involves regulating which of the following?
The aortic arch and the carotid sinus contain nerve endings that monitor blood pressure by the degree of stretch on the vessel wall. These sensors are called:
A change in blood pressure that increases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?
A change in blood pressure that decreases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?
Increased sympathetic nerve activity at the heart would cause:
An increase in both heart rate and contractility
The sympathetic nervous system also stimulates the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from what gland?
The Adrenal Gland
What cells in the kidney monitor blood pressure, releasing renin when blood pressure is low?
The Juxtaglomerular cells
How does angiotensin II raise blood pressure?
Directly by increasing vasoconstriction and indirectly by stimulating aldosterone release
An increase in plasma osmolarity stimulates release of what hormone from the posterior pituitary?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Amino acids, move through the blood vessel walls by which of the following mechanisms?
Clefts or fenestrations
Bulk fluid flow causes ____________ at the arterial end and ______________ at the venous end of the capillary.