Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

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This Layer (or tunic) of the Blood Vessel wall is Composed of Smooth Muscle and Elastin:

The Tunica Media contains Smooth Muscle and Elastin

Exchange of Materials (like oxygen) btw the Blood and Tissue Cells takes place in:

True Capillaries

In which Vessel is the Lowest Blood Pressure?

The Venules

When Precapillary Sphincters Dilate...

Blood Flow Through the True Capillaries Increases

What special adaptation in veins prevents the backflow of blood as it travels toward the heart?

Venous one-way valves prevent backflow

Which type of blood vessel consists of only a thin tunica intima?

The Capillaries

Which has more smooth muscle, but less elastin, and delivers blood to specific organs?

Muscular arteries

Which vessels have the largest lumen and a thin tunica media?

Veins

The innermost layer (or tunic) of the blood vessel wall is called the:

Tunica Intima

Which Artery provides the greatest resistance to flow?

Arterioles Provide the Greatest Resistance to Flow

Systolic pressure (SP) is:

The maximum pressure reached in the arteries

The dicrotic notch represents the brief interruption of smooth blood flow caused by the backflow of blood that closes which valve?

The Aortic semilunar

Diastolic pressure is usually:

80 mm Hg

Pulse Pressure is:

The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure

The calculated "average" pressure in the arteries is called the:

Mean Arterial Pressure

No Sounds are Heard

When the pressure in the blood pressure cuff is greater than in the artery

The first sound you hear through the stethoscope as pressure in the cuff is released is recorded as:

Systolic Pressure

DP + PP/3

The correct formula for calculating mean arterial pressure (MAP)

Calculate pulse pressure, given SP = 110 mm Hg and DP = 70 mm Hg

40 mm Hg

Calculate MAP, given SP = 130 mm Hg and DP = 70 mm Hg

90 mm Hg

Applying norepinephrine to a blood vessel would alter which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?

Vessel diameter

Increasing hematocrit would alter which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?

Viscosity

An increase in fatty tissue affects which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?

Vessel length

Arteriosclerosis will alter which of the following factors, thus increasing blood pressure?

Vessel diameter

If there is a decrease in blood volume, what would be the effect on blood pressure (BP)?

BP would decrease

Sympathetic stimulation to the heart would alter heart rate, thus __________ cardiac output:

increasing

How would stimulation of the vagus nerve alter cardiac output (CO)?

Decrease in CO caused by decreased heart rate

How would increasing stroke volume (SV) alter cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure (BP)?

Increased CO and increased BP

Administering angiotensin II to your patient would __________ the patient's blood pressure.

increase

The long-term mechanism for regulation of blood pressure involves regulating which of the following?

Blood volume

The aortic arch and the carotid sinus contain nerve endings that monitor blood pressure by the degree of stretch on the vessel wall. These sensors are called:

Arterial Baroreceptors

A change in blood pressure that increases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?

The Parasympathetic

Impusles from the Parasympathetic:

Decreases Blood Pressure

A change in blood pressure that decreases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?

The Sympathetic

Increased Impulses from the Sympathetic:

Increases Blood Pressure

Increased Activity to the Vagus Nerve would cause the heart rate to:

Decrease

Increased sympathetic nerve activity at the heart would cause:

An increase in both heart rate and contractility

The sympathetic nervous system also stimulates the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from what gland?

The Adrenal Gland

What cells in the kidney monitor blood pressure, releasing renin when blood pressure is low?

The Juxtaglomerular cells

How does angiotensin II raise blood pressure?

Directly by increasing vasoconstriction and indirectly by stimulating aldosterone release

An increase in plasma osmolarity stimulates release of what hormone from the posterior pituitary?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What regulates the flow of blood into true capillaries?

Precapillary sphincters

Low O2 and high CO2

This combination would increase blood flow in capillaries

Decreased nutrients and fever:

This combination would increase blood flow in capillaries

Oxygen and carbon dioxide move through the blood vessel wall primarily by:

Diffusion

Amino acids, move through the blood vessel walls by which of the following mechanisms?

Clefts or fenestrations

Bulk fluid flow causes ____________ at the arterial end and ______________ at the venous end of the capillary.

Filtration; Reabsorption

Blood pressure forces fluid _____ the capillary.

out of

Plasma proteins in the capillary forces fluid _____ the capillary.

into

When Hydrostatic pressure is higher than net Osmotic pressure what happens?

Fluid will leave the Capillary

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