Neurology Chap# 12- Cerebellum & Brainstem

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Cerebellum vital to the control of rapid muscular activities.
ex: speaking, running, typing, dancing.

*does not initiate the movement

MUSCLE SYNERGY - coordination
MOVEMENT RANGE
VELOCITY
STRENGTH
MAINTAINANCE OF BODY EQUILIBRIUM

...

Participates in Motor Learning, Motor Memory, and Movement execution

...

Lesion:

mild weakness, tremor, ataxia, impaired equilibrium

packed gyri

Folia

Divided into cerebellar hemispheres

Midline portion = VERMIS (left & right hemispheres)

Each hemisphere divided in 3 lobes:

Anterior
posterior
Flocculonodular- consists of NODULUs and paired FLOCCULI

Cerebellum connected to Brainstem through 3 peduncles:

Superior
middle
inferior

Both Direct and Indirect projections that ggo to spinals cord, cerebral cortex, and basal ganglia

(Essential for learning skilled movements)

Brainstem

-Connects the Diencephalon to the Spinal Cord
- Control all brain ouptput; cardiac , respiratory,sensorimotor
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata

* CRANIAL NERVES 3-12 ORGINATE IN BRAINSTEM!

... brainstem

SUPERIOR Structure from Dorsal view

- the CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA(superior &inferior colliculi)
- the floors of the 4TH ventricle
-and 3 cerebellar penducles.

Brainstem: INTERNALLY consists of ...

Cranial Nerve nuclei,
longitudinal fiber tracts, and the
Reticular formation

RETICULAR FORMATION

Modify, facilitate, and regulate all coritcal functions

Regulate swallowing; CN 5,7,9,10,12

actions such as awaking/sleeping cycle

RF involved with...

Cortical arousal, pain perception, regulate toncil modulation and act of spinal and cranial motor functions.

Responsible for maintaining homestatic state of the brain..

visceral

Brainstem- MIDBRAIN

- Link between the cerebral hemispheres and the peripheral and cranial sensory input systems.

-Contains all incoming sensory & outgoing motor fiber + important reticular and cranial nerve nuclei

-Generate neurotransmitters vital to regualte telencephalic, diencephalic, brainstem and spinal cord functions

Corpora Quadrigemina; 4 rounded elevations (tectum)

-2 Superior Colliculi= reflex control of eye movement, visual reflez and coordination of vestibular generated head & eye move(reflex eye control) searching, tracking

- 2 Inferior Colliculi= Mediate the transmission of auditory impluses from the ear to the thalamus and auditory cortex.
- (auditory transmission)

* 3 subdivisions of the midbrain:

1) tectum- orientation map for survival (roof) lens accomodation
2) tegmentum- contains cranial nerve nuclei, red nucleus, and reticular central gray region (central part)
3) basis pedunculi- consists of pes peduncili

Contain SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

the largest nucleus of the midbrain
-degeneration result in Parkinsons disease

Brainstem- PONS (metencephalic)

separated from midbrain by SUPERIOR PONTINE SULCUS.
and from medulla by INFERIOR PONTINE SULCUS .

- contain all DESCENDING (MOTOR) and ASCENDING (SENSORY) fibers

pons consists on 2 parts:

1) PONTINE TEGMENTUM
2) Basis pontis

attaches the cerebellum to the brainstem

middle cerebellar penduncle

Give rise to Cranial nerves...

CN V, CN VII

Brainstem- MEDULLA OBLONGATA

-houses both sensory + motor fiber tracts down to spinal cord

Major surface structures (4)

VENTRAL MEDIAN SULCUS- divides medulla in half!
PYRAMIDAL TRACT- carries motor info from motor cortex to spinal cord for skeletal muscles.
INFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS-
DORSAL TUBERCULA

After motor fibers cross (from pyramidal tract) the midline, form..

LATERAL CORTICOSPINAL TRACT; a motor pathway of the spinal cord

Internally 2 parts:

1) Tegmentum: contains serval nuclei (vital reflexes)
2) PYRAMID: contains descending motor fibers

3 vital reflex centers + 1:

cardiac center, vasomotor center, respiratory center
(+1) swallowing

* ANY LESIONS CAN BE FATAL

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