HIstory Chapter 7 Test

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The Rise of Islam

Monotheist

believes in one God

Allah

the Arabic word for God

Calligraphy

beautiful and ornate handwriting

Polygamy

having two or more wives

Concubine

a woman who is not legally married to a man but who is treated by him as a wife

Theocracy

a government carried out directly by God or by one who is considered to be directly guided by God

Patronize

to support, guard, or protect arts, learning, music, and so forth, usually with wealth and influence. One who is a patron.

Allah

Arabic for God

Kaaba

the shrine at the center of Mecca and Islam's holiest place.

Hegira

Muhammad's flight from Mecca and the begging of Muslim count for years

Islam

"submission" to Allah and the name of the religion founded by Muhammad

Koran

the scripture of Islam containing the record of Muhammad's prophecies and commands

Jihad

interior "struggle" to submit one's will to Allah as well as a holy war against the unbelievers

Five Pillars of Islam

the central tenets of the Islamic faith

caliph

"successor" to the prophet Muhammad and the spiritual and military leader of Islam

emir

the Muslim governor of a province

Shiite and Sunni

the two major divisions

Heraclius

the Byzantine emperor who defeated the Persians and lost to the Arabs

Muhammad

founder and Prophet of the Islamic religion

Abu Bakr

Muhammad's father in law and the first caliph

Omar

second caliph whose armies conquered Mesopotamia, Persia, and Egypt.

Othman

third caliph, founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs

Ali

fourth caliph,Muhammad's son-in-law

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