the accountability on an individual for a crime because of the perpetrator's characteristic and the circumstances of the illegal act.
law regulating the relationships between or among individuals, usually involving property, contract, or business disputes.
Substantive criminal law
law defining the acts of the subject to punishment and specifying the punishments for such offenses.
Procedural criminal law
law defining the procedures that criminal justice officials must follow in enforcement, adjudication, and correction.
the Anglo-American system of uncodified law, in which judges follow precedents set by earlier decisions when they decide new but similar cases. The substantive and procedural criminal law was originally developed in the manner by was later codified-set down in codes-by state legislatures.