Bio Vocab Ch. 21 (Tri. 2)

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ingestion

the act of eating

digestion

the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb

absorption

the cells lining the digestive tract take up (absorb) the products of digestion

elimination

undigested material passes out of the digestive tract

gastrovascular cavity

a digestive compartment with a single opening

mouth

the single opening where food is ingested

alimentary canal

a digestive tract with two openings a mouth and an anus

pharynx

the throat which food passes through

esophagus

channels food to a crop, gizzard, or stomach

crop

pouch like organ in which food is softened and stored

stomach

an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal, which stores food

gizzard

thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food

intestine

chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occur here

anus

undigested materials are expelled here

sphincters

ringlike valves which regulate the passage of food into and out of the stomach

peristalsis

alternating wavs of contraction and relaxation of the stomach muscle lining the canal

saliva

produced by salivary glands, break down food

oral cavity

where saliva comes from the ducts

salivary glands

secrete more than a liter of saliva in a day

bolus

a ball of food shaped by the tongue

gastric juice

secreted by the stomach, made up of mucus, enzymes, and strong acid

gastrin

a hormone released into the circulatory system

chyme

the broken down watery food and water

small intestine

digests larger molecules

pancreas

produces pancreatic juices, a mixture of digestive enzymes, alkaline solution, rich in biocarbonate

liver

produces bile

bile

contains bile salts that emulsify fats, making them more susceptible to attack by digestive enzymes

gallbladder

stores bile until it is needed by the small intestine

duodenum

The first section of the small intestine, 25 cm

villi

large circular folds with numerous, small finger like projections

microvilli

each of the epithelial cells lining and villius has many tiny surface projections

hepatic portal vein

large vessel that transports nutrients absorbed by the intestines directly to the liver

large intestine/colon

1.5 m long, and 5cm diameter, Reclaims water and compacts the feces

cecum

The first portion of the large intestine, the T arm

appendix

a small fingerlike extension of the cecum, contains a mass of white blood cells that make a minor contribution to immunity

rectum

feces is stored in this final portion of the colon

feces

waste products, indigestible plant fibers, and prokaryotes

essential nutrients

materials that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal cell's cannot make them from raw material

undernourishment

a condition resulting from a diet that is chronically deficient in calories

malnourishment

results from the long-term absence in the diet of one or more essential nutrients

essentially fatty acids

obtained through our diet, it is needed to make some of the phospholipids of a cell membrane

essential amino acids

obtained from diet, the 8 we cannot naturally make

vitamin

an organic nutrient we must obtain from our diet, in minute amounts

mineral

simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts

emulsification

process in which bile breaks down fat

ulcer

an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar and is sometimes accompanied by infection

HCL

hydrochloric acid

lipid digestion

prepared for digestion by bile secreted by liver and stored in gallbladder (increases surface area) ; lipase acts upon it in small intestine and produces fatty acids and glycerol; liver digests glycerol

carbohydrate digestion

mainly in small intestine, breaks down maltase, sucrase, lactase to glucose

lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks down starches and carbohydrates

pepsin

breaks down proteins in stomach

constipation

too much water absorbed

diarrhea

too little water absorbed

carbohydrates

sugars/starches digested in the mouth and small intestine

fruits/fiber

not taken in by the body

fats

nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins

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