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Cells:

Are the fundamental units that make up all living things

Most accurate statement of why cells stay small:

Surface area of a cell must heed exchange requiremens

Cell Division:

restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements in developing embryos such as a chick

The statement that best describes cell theory:

All living things are make of cells and cells come only from pre-existing cells

Scanning electron microscope

provides a three-dimensional view of the surface of an object

Plasma membrane:

is the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell

Cytoplasm:

the semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that dissolves molecules between the nucleus and cell membrane.

Organelles:

are small membranous structures that occur within the cell and have various functions.

Cytoskeleton:

The internal structures of a cell that maintain its shape and allow it to move

The function of the plasma membrane is:

A. Determines which substances enter and leave the cell. B. serves as a boundary between the cell and its environment. C. contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts with its environment.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

Cell division is important as related to the size of cells because:

Cell division restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements

Hypertonic:

A salt water solution is hypertonic, which draws water from plants (and human) cells.

In an isotonic solution the number of particles is equal:

CORRECT statement about solute concentrations or particles inside and outside the cell

Facilitated transport:

The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy

Phagocytosis

Example: an amoeba feeding by engulfing is prey with its false feet or pseudopods. As a WBC does to pathogen

Nucleolus:

obvious dark-stained structure withing the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA

If a cell lacked ribosomes it would not be able to :

synthesize proteins

Proteins, phospholipids

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of _____________ and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing _____________.

Microbodies

Are not part of the cytoskeleton

Tissues:

Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function

Which are considered a basic tissue type?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

Epithelial tissue:

tissue that covers body surfaces and lines cavities

Connective tissue:

tissue that binds structures together and provides structural support

Cells, Ground substance, and protein fibers:

The three major components of connective tissue

Collagen

The protein that provides flexibility and strength to connective tissues

Hyaline cartilage

Found in the ends of long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages

NOT a function of the integument

Production of white blood cells

Functions of the integument

protection from pathogen invasion, inhibition of water loss, regulation of body temperature, synthesis of vitamin D

Keratin

Responsible for waterproofing the skin

Accessory organs of the integument

Nails, hair, and glands are all structures of the epidermal origin.

The most correct statement concerning capillaries:

The only site of nutrient, gas exchange, and waste exchange is the capillaries.

What is the function of the valves in the veins?

To prevent the backward flow of blood

Correct statements regarding the heart:

The heart is cone-shaped, is about the size of a human fist, normally tilted toward the left, is between the lungs.

Ventricles:

Are the two lower pumping chambers of the heart.

Diastolic, Systolic:

_______pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxing and _______occurs when the heart ejects blood.

Veins:

The _______serve as a reservoir for blood.

Myocardium

The heart muscle is known as the ____________.

Right atrium:

The venae cavae carry low-oxygen blood to the _______of the heart.

The major function(s) of blood includes:

transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients; carrying waste products; regulating body temperatures and pH; fighting pathogens.

erythrocytes, leukocytes:

RBC's are better known as _______ and WBC's are better known as_______.

Platelets

Are cell fragments and not of whole cells

Hemoglobin is:

found in red blood cells; an oxygen transporter; required for cellular respiration; the pigment that makes blood red.

Mature human red blood cells

are biconcave discs without a nucleus

Formed elements and plasma:

Are the two major components of blood

Pathogens

are organisms such as viruses and bacteria that are capable of causing disease

Capsules

exist in some bacteria and prevent them from being destroyed boy phagocytic WBC and certain one-celled organisms

Binary Fission

Under ideal conditions, some species of bacteria can double their numbers every 12 minutes. This ability is the result of bacteria being capable of___________.

The thymus becomes smaller with age as well as ___________.

helps T lymphocytes learn self from nonself

Unfortunately many people think all bacteria are bad, identify the positive contributions of some bacteria (all are correct)

bacteria can serve as decomposers in the environment, bacteria are important in the wine, cheese and bread industry, bacteria are important in biotechnology, some bacteria are beneficial residents of the digestive tract

Plasmid

An additional ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a __________.

The following statements that most accurately describe viruses:

They contain a protein coat called a capsid, they may contain genomic DNA or RNA, They are acellular, they are obligate intracellular parasites.

Viruses are capable of multiplying in a host cell because:

viral DNA instructs the cell to produce more of the virus.

Nervous

Prions cause degenerative diseases of the ________system.

New viral pathogens emerge when:

they are transported to different parts of the world, the virus mutates, the virus can be transmitted by a new vector, the immune system cannot recognize a change in the virus.

The lymphatic system:

takes up excess tissue fluid and returns it to the bloodstream; absorbs fats in the intestines; helps the body defend against disease; includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils

Lacteals

Lymphatic capillaries called the ________are located in the small intestines

Liver, Kidney

are not included as a lymphatic organ

thymus, spleen

Red bone marrow an the __________are considered primary lymphatic organs and lymph nodes and the ______are considered secondary lymphatic organs.

Antigens

Immunity is based on the recognition of antibody stimulating entities known as _________

The following are considered nonspecific defenses:

barriers to entry; inflammatory reaction; natural killer cells; protective proteins

Heather ate yogurt after an intense antibiotic treatment to:

replace her resident bacteria

active, passive

in _____immunity the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens and in ______immunity the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.

Active immunity

After being exposed to a contagious disease, Jennifer has accumulated a high level of antibodies, yet shows no sign of illness. She is exhibiting:

Active

Larry was immunized against most of the childhood diseases. This represents ________immunity.

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