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Archeologist

A scientist who is trained like a detective to uncover the stories of prehistoric people.

Artifacts

Human made objects (tools or jewelry)

Anthropologist

A scientist who studies the culture of prehistoric people by looking at objects left behind

culture

a people's unique way of life

paleontologist

a scientist that studies evidence of early life preserved in rocks

fossil

evidence of early life preserved in rocks

nomads

mobile people who move from place to place foraging for new sources of food

5 characteristics of a civilization

record keeping, advanced technology, advanced cities, specialization of workers, complex institutions

ziggurat

"Mountain of God", place for worship, city hall and used for grain storage

Neolithic Revolution

the beginning of systematic agriculture

Fertile Crescent

curved shaped region that provided the best farming in the Middle East

City-state

A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit

dynasty

a series of rulers from one family

polytheism

the belief in more than one god

empire

political system the brings together several peoples, nations, or independent states under one ruler

Hammurabi's Law Code

This was used to unify the Babylonian Empire, it included 282 laws

delta

Broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a river

Pharaoh

Egyptian god-king

theocracy

type of government in which rule is based on religious authority

hieroglyphics

"sacred carvings", Egyptian system of writing

divine rights

concept where a ruler received his authority from the heavens

migration

the moving of a people from one region to another

caste system

the social system in India

reincarnation

an individual soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved

Siddhartha Guatama

Buddha's real name

Phoenicians

Civilization of great shipbuilders and sailors, establishing trading colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Had the language of 22 characters

Torah

The first 5 books of the Hebrew bible

Abraham

considered the "father" of the Hebrews.

monotheism

the belief in one god

covenant

the mutual promise between God and the Hebrew people

Moses

this man led the Hebrews out of Egypt and received the 10 commandments

Cyrus the Great

He allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild their temple. He was considered a military genius, tolerant leader, ruler of the Persian Empire

New Kingdom

The period of time in Egypt that the empire became more powerful and wealthy. Included the rule of Queen Hatshepsut, King Thutmose III, King Ramses II

Ashurbanipal

He collected over 20,000 tablets creating the ancient world's largest library in Ninevah

Royal Road

This was used to create a quick and easy route for communication throughout the Persian Empire

Zorastrianism

This religion taught that earth was in a constant struggle between good and evil. Can be seen in modern religions.

Confucius

This man had a deep desire to return order and moral living to Chinese society

Daoism

The philosophy of thought believes that there is a universal force called the Dao

legalism

this philosophy believes that government should be used to end civil disorder and restore harmony

autocracy

A government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

Great Wall

Built under the Qin dynasty with the use of peasant labor

Mountainous terrain, long coastline, moderate temperatures

geographical features of Greece that had an impact on Greek politics

Trojan Wars

War fought between the Greeks and Trojans over trade route along the Mediterranean

Homer

Blind storyteller who wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey

myths

the name given to traditional stories about the Greek gods

polis

another name for Greek city state

acropolis

a fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city government in Greece

monarchy

a king or queen makes all governmental decisions

oligarchy

power is in the hands of a few people

tyrant

someone who seizes power by appealing to the common people for support

democracy

rule is by the people

Draco

created a system of laws that dealt harshly with those who broke the law

direct democracy

allows citizens to rule directly instead of through representatives

classical art

values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard for this type of art

Peloponesian Wars

war fought between Athens and Sparta

philosophers

"lovers of wisdom"

Socrates

charged with "corrupting the youth of Athens", and sentenced to death by hemlock

Plato

wrote The Republic

Aristotle

Taught Alexander the Great, his work helped to establish the scientific method today

Alexander the Great

the son of King Philip II and attacked the Persian empire. Later died of a fever at the age of 32.

cuneiform

wedge shaped writing developed by the Sumerians

republic

power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders

Senate

300 members and was considered the aristocratic branch of Rome's government

legion

5,000 Roman soldiers

Punic Wars

the 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage

civil war

conflict between groups within the same country

Julius Caesar

Conquered Gaul and became the absolute ruler of Rome eventually stabbed to death 23 times by the Senate

Augustus Caesar

first ruler the Republic named Octavian given the title "exalted one"

roads

this allowed for easy trade throughout the Roman empire

Jesus

born in the town of Bethlehem approximately around 6-4 B.C., a carpenter

Constantine

Roman emperor that recognized the Christian religion when he placed crosses on his soldiers' and created a document that declared Christianity a Roman Emperor approved religion

inflation

drastic drop in value of money and increase in prices

mercenaries

foreign soldiers who fought for money

Constantinople

New capital of Rome, named for Constantine

Hellenism

Mixing of Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic cultures

Latin

language used by the Romans, has influence upon many languages today

aqueducts

these provided fresh water daily to the Roman people

Bedouin

Arab nomads

Ka'aba

ancient shrine located in Mecca

Allah

Arabic word for God

Muhammad

Muslim religious figure who was orphaned at age 6, became a trader at 25, a prophet at 40 whose wife was Khadijah

Islam

"submission to the will of Allah"

Muslim

"one who has submitted"

Mosque

Islamic house of worship

Qu'ran

Holy book of Muslims, the collection of Muhammad's revelations

jihad

"striving" or the inner struggle against evil

algebra

Al-Khwarizmi, a mathematician developed this form of math that was "the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quantity"

Justinian's Code

Uniform code of laws created under Justinian that was created from over 400 years of Roman law

patriarch

leading bishop of the Eastern Church

ex-communication

taking away the membership to the church

Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox

2 churches that formed when the Christian church split in 2

Hagia Sophia

nicknamed "holy wisdom" it was the largest cathedral built of its time during Justinian's rule over the Byzantine Empire

Slavs

IndoEuropeans who migrated into Central Europe and became Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, Czechs, Serbs

Mongols

Nomadic Turkic peoples who unified much of Eurasia under Genghis Khan, conquered Russia, Islamic Empire, and China

Kublai Khan

This Mongol ruled China and rebuilt the trade along the Silk Road

Shintoism

Religious beliefs in Japan called animism in which spirits reside in nature

Middle Ages

The medieval period from 500 to 1500

monastery

name given to places where monks and nuns sought refuge from the chaos of the rest of the world

Charlemagne

named Charles the Great, extended Frankish rule, started the Carolingian Revival and was given the title "Roman Emperor" by the pope

fief

land granted by a landowner to a serf

serf

group of people not allowed to leave the land they were born

manor

the lord's estate

chivalry

set of ideals that a knight must do to defend their 3 masters

sacraments

important religious ceremonies (like Baptism)

canon

church law

Holy Roman Emperor

Formerly known as the Roman Empire of the German Nation created by Otto I

crusades

a "Holy War" to gain control of the Holy Land

Jerusalem

city that was captured in 1099 by Crusaders

Reconquista

effort by the Spanish to push Muslims out of Spain

Spanish Inquisition

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella used this to restore order to and suppress heresy in Spain after the Reconquista

guild

organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic/social conditions of its members

vernacular

everyday language of their homeland

Battle of Hastings

the battle that took place after the King Edward the Confessor died without heir which changed the course of English history in 1066 when William the Conqueror defeated Harold Godwinson

jury

a group of 12 loyal people in England who answered a judge's questions about the facts of a case

common law

unified body of law created from court rulings of England's royal judges

Magna Carta

document that King John was forced to sign allowing certain basic political rights in England

parliament

legislative group in England, created by King Edward I, composed of two houses

Great Schism

split in the church that occurred in the 14th century which greatly weakened its power in Europe

bubonic plague

deadly disease that killed 1/3 of Europe's population; known as Black Death

Hundred Years War

war that started with the death of the last Capetian king in France, introduced the longbow to battle ended the age of chivalry, forced the English from France entirely

Ghana

1st great African trading kingdom 300 A.D., located between gold mines and salt trade

Mali

2nd great West African Muslim trading kingdom during the 1200s which taxed all goods transported through its kingdom ruled by Mansa Musa

Songhay

3rd great West African Muslim trading kingdom which was larger that Mali and Ghana and defeated by armies from Morocco

Zimbabwe

Bantu speaking culture located in the interior of Africa around 1000 A.D. that built advanced stone enclosures

Berber

North Africans who traded salt for gold trade with sub-Saharan Africans

Mayans

MesoAmerican empire located on the Yucatan Peninsula, devised the use of zero, and created accurate calendars

Aztecs

group that built a warrior empire centered at its capital Tenochtitlan and based around human sacrifice

kipu

name for the knotted rope system used as a method of record keeping by the Incas

Incas

empire centered in Peru that built a network of roads and bridges through the Andes

Renaissance

rebirth/revival of the Arts and learning

Micheangelo

Renaissance artist who was best known for his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and his statue of David

Leonardo Da Vinci

Considered a true "Renaissance man", this Renaissance artist was responsible for the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper

Raphael

Renaissance artist famous for his use of perspective in his paintings including School of Athens

Machiavelli

Wrote the famous work The Prince

Thomas More

Wrote the book Utopia

Shakespeare

Considered the most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age in England whose works included Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth

Gutenburg

Built the printing press in Mainz, Germany in 1440 printing a bible as the first book from the press

Indulgences

A pardon releasing someone from performing the penalty for a sin

Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther's actions started this in Europe

Peace of Augsburg

Stated that each prince would decide the religion of his kingdom

John Calvin

Believed that God knows from the beginning of time who will be saved and continued the Reformation in Switzerland later creating the Calvinist faith

Catholic Reformation

Also called the Counter Reformation

Compass, Sextant, Astrolabe

3 things that made it possible for Europeans to sail large distances

Columbus

sailed for the Spanish in 1492 and led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese

Da Gama

Reached Asia by traveling around Africa and securing precious cargo such as spices and silk

Amerigo Vespucci

America is named after this man

Magellan

Discovered Guam and the Philippines by sailing around South America, but died in a local war in the Philippines

conquistador

Spanish conquerors of Latin America

Cortez

Conquistador that conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan for Spain

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