Neuro lec 6

Created by Roxlo 

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Cerebrum

aka telencephalon, most superior region of CNS. Composed of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system.

Olfactory bulb

involved in smell

Brain stem

provides main motor and sensory innervations to the face and neck via cranial nerves

Cerebellum

coordination/time

Central sulcus

prominent landmark of brain separating parietal lobe from frontal lobe

Superior temporal gyrus

auditory cortex and sensation of sound

Corpus callosum

divides brain

Cingulate gyrus

emotion, processing, learning

Fornix

C-shaped bundle of axons that carries signals from hippocampus to mamillary bodies and septal nuclei.

Optic chiasm

part of the brain where the optic nerve partially cross

Calcarine fissure

where the primary visual cortex is concentrated

Amygdala

almond-shaped groups of nuclei; primary role is memory of emotional reactions/fear.

Hippocampus

long-term memory and spatial navigation

Hypothalamus

homeostatic functions

Midbrain

aka mescencephalon

Tegmentum

unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways

Tectum

auditory and visual reflexes

Pons

relays signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, deals with sleep, respiration, swallowing,bladder control, eye movement, facial sensation, posture

Medulla

vital body functions such as breathing and heartrate

Pineal body

produces serotonin derivative melatonine (sleep/wake cycle)

Basal forebrain

production of acetycholine

White matter

mostly myelinated axons

Gray matter

all kinds of axons and capillaries, neural cell bodies as well

Putamen

regulates movement and learning

Globus pallidus

planning and inhibition of movements

Caudate nucleus

learning and memory

Internal capsule

motor function

Insula

homeostasis, self awareness, cognitive functioning

Mammillary body

recognition memory

Substantia nigra

reward, addiction, movement

Ventral nucleus

somatosensory

CT Scan

uses x-ray beams (rotating) to generate a brain slice and digitally reconstruct the image

MRI

uses info on how hydrogen atoms respond in the brain to perturbations of a strong magnetic field

Functional Imaging

looking at the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and mental functions, ex: PET, fMRI, EEG, etc.

fMRI & PET

detect changes in blood flow & metabolism in the brain. Since ative neurons have more glucose & oxygen, there is more blood flow there.

Cell bodies in layers, surface layer separated from pia mater, apical dendrites form multiple branches

What are common features of the cortex?

Frontal lobe

separated from parietal lobe by post-central gyrus. Contains dopamine sensitive areas of cortex associated with reward, attention, long-term memory, planning, and drive.

parietal lobe

integrates sensory info ffrom different areas

occipital lobe

lobe involved in vision

temporal lobe

lobe involved in auditory perception

neocortex

outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres, made up of six layers labeled I to VI. Is part of the cerebral cortex. Involved in sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, and language.

Apical

outer extremities

Neocortex

top layer of cerebral hemispheres in brain of mammals

Gyrus

Convex fold or elevation in surface of brain

Sulci

grooves/trenches/fissures in brain

Cingulate (cortex)

situated in the medial aspect of the cortex, includes cortex of cingulated gyrus, which lies immediately above corpus collosum.

Calcarine fissure

vision (near occipital lobe)

Amygdala

processing and memory of emotional reactions/fear

Thalamus

sensory switchboard of the brain

Hypothalamus

homeostatic functions

Proscencephalon

forebrain

Telencephalon

upper part

Diencephalon

lower part of forebrain

Mescencephalon

midbrain

Rhombencephalon

hindbrain

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