Test 1 Intro to sonography

135 terms by williabc42 

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abbrv, prefixes, and suffix, vocab 1-4, PPTs, communication, grieving process, infection control, types of memory, smds, ardms, aium and their responsibilities, people in history of U/S.

AIUM

promote the usage of ultrasound in physical medicine

SDMS

promotes excellence in the field and sets high educational standards. adopted a code of conduct

ARDMS

evaluates and certifies the proficiency of sonographers

brachio-

arm

cardio-

heart

co-

together

colo-

colon, large intestine

contra-

against

cysto-

bladder

dactyl-

pertaining to fingers or toes

decub-

side

dorso-

back

dys-

difficult or painful

ecto-

outside

encephalo-

pertaining to brain

endo-

within

entero-

pertaining to the intestines

gastro-

pertaining to the stomach

hema-/hemo-

pertaining to blood

hemi-

half

hepato-

pertaining to liver

hydro-

pertaining to water

-itis

inflammation

-oma

tumor

-osis

abnormal condition or process

-pathy

abnormality

-phobia

abnormal fear

-plasty

surgical correction

-ptosis

falling or drooping

-rhapy

suture

-scopy

inspection

-tomy

incision

-uria

contained within the urine

ultrasound

Sound with frequencies above the upper limits of the human ear (2 to 20 MHz).

sonography

The imaging of deep structures of the body by recording echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues and reflected by tissue planes where there is a change in density.

Acoustics

the scientific study of sound, especially of its generation, transmission, and reception.

sonographer

an Allied Health professional with special training in the use of ultrasound equipment for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. One who graphs or draws with sound.

transducer

a device that converts electrical signals into ultrasound waves and ultrasound waves back into electrical impulses.

sonologist

a person who studies sinology, the science of sound.

sonometer

an instrument for measuring the sharpness and range of hearing through the use of controlled amounts of sound.

sagittal

a vertical plane passing through the standing body from front to back. The mid-sagittal, or median, plane splits the body into equal left and right halves.

superior

in anatomy, above or over top of.

inferior

in anatomy, below or toward the feet.

longitudinal

or relating to length. It means along the length, or running lengthwise.

transverse

a horizontal plane passing through the standing body so that the transverse plane is parallel to the floor.

medial

relating to, situated in, or extending toward the middle.

lateral

structure lying away from the midline.

coronal

the plane that divides the body into front and back portions.

christian johann doppler

an Austrian scientist who first postulated the effect of motion on the pitch of sounds and named it the Doppler Effect.

curie brothers

discovered piezoelectricity. They established the presence of the piezoelectric effect when they observed that crystals will expand and contract when placed in an alternating electrical field. Their discoveries led to the development of the modern transducer.

piezoelectricity

The property of certain crystals that causes them to produce voltage when a mechanical pressure such as sound vibrations is applied to them.

john wild

first to use ultrasound to detect tissue thickness. researched that cancerous tissue is different from normal tissue. constructed early prototype breat scanner and rectal transducer to scan large bowel.

ian donald

developed a contact compound scanner along with Tom Brown in 1957. In 1960 they developed a mechanical sector scanner, then later a hand-held scanner which they called the diasonograph. He is credited with contributing to the diagnosis of hydramnios, multiple pregnancies, and hydatidiform. He also introduced the fluid-filled bladder technique. He is well known as the "father of obstetric ultrasound" for the first demonstration of a fetal gestational sac.

body mechanics

the use of correct movements during the performance of any activity.

vital signs

- temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure as indicators of the functioning of the body.

medical asepsis

measures taken to keep health care workers, patients, and the environment clean to prevent the spread of germs; sterile or free of microorganisms

strict isolation

Separation from others to prevent the spread, by contact or airborne transmission, of highly contagious diseases.

respiratory isolation

used to protect others from germs in the patient's nose, mouth, throat, and lungs. It is used for diseases that are airborne.

enteric precautions

used in diseases involving ingestion of disease-producing microorganisms to protect others from germs in the patient's bowels, bladder, and stomach.

wound-skin precations

used to protect others from germs in patient's wounds or any other heavily contaminated areas.

reverse protective isolation

protects patients from the germs of others. It is used with persons who have extremely impaired resistance.

tachycardia

an abnormally fast heart rate. Can be caused by heart problems, fever, and overactive thyroid, or drugs.

bradycardia

abnormally slow pulse.

hypertension

a persistently high arterial blood pressure

hypotension

a persistently low arterial blood pressure

dyspnea

- labored breathing

systolic pressure

The contraction of the heart.

diastolic pressure

The relaxation of the heart between contractions. The dilation or enlargement of an opening or a hollow organ or tube.

respiration

the act of respiring; inhalation and exhalation of air; breathing.

colostomy

surgical procedure to form an artificial opening in the large bowel.

ileostomy

an artificial opening into the ileum.

intravenous

an artificial opening into the ileum.

universal precautions

suggested program to provide safety to both patient and caregiver from blood or certain infections. The CDC and other federal agencies have compiled these recommendations.

pythagoras

greek mathematician, began systematic study of sound and observed the relationship between sound pitch and frequency

archytas of tarentum

greek schloar; defined nature of sound. sound is produced by the motion of one object striking another. fast motion - high pitch. slow motion - low pitch.

aristotle

greek philosopher; produced theory of sound propagation. sound is carried by the ears by the movement of air

boethius

roman philosopher; first to compare sound waves to the waves produced by dropping a pebble into a calm body of water.

leonardo da vinci

originated the idea that sound travels in waves. credited discovery that angle of reflection = angle of incidence.

galileo

frequency of sound waves determine pitch

sir isaac newton

derivation of the theory of velocity

robert boyle

popularized the theory of elasticity of air

lord rayleigh

published the theory of sound. marked the beginning of the modern study of acoustics

lazzaro spallanzani

studied activities of bats. theorized bats were listening to something he could not hear.

george ludwig

first used ultrasound to detect gallstones at MIT

G.W. Pierce

invented a sonic detector

Karl Dussik

became first physician to use ultrasound for diagnostic purposes

william fry

explored possibilities that high intensity ultrasound could provide a noninvasive lower risk surgical technique. designed multiple transducer system of focused high intensity beams to produce pinpoint lesion without damaging surrounding tissue.

francis fry and elizabeth kelly

studied use of ultrasound to detect breast cancer. kelly is one of the leading authorities on ultrasonic breast scanning

Communication

exchange of information by sending and receiving messages.

Sender

the originator of the message or idea

Interaction

feedback that results from the receiver's response

Receiver

someone to receive and interpret the message

Verbal Communication

transmission of words in either verbal or written form

Nonverbal Communication

eye contact, facial expressions, body movements & postures, tone of voice and touch

Competency

The state or quality of being adequately or well qualified; ability. A specific range of skill, knowledge, or ability. In sonography requires continuing education in addition to training.

Confidentiality

discretion in keeping secret information, patient's right to privacy of all medical information

Ethnicity

an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties;

Culture

The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population

Mores

The accepted traditional customs and usages of a particular social group, their moral values.

Traditions

Beliefs or customs taught by one generation to the next, often orally.

Personal Space

region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Invasion of personal space often leads to discomfort, anger, or anxiety on the part of the victim. Personal space varies from culture to culture.

Social Conversation

automatic type of communication that people use out of habit. Consists of polite friendly exchanges of factual and social information.

Supportive conversation

goal oriented and information bearing, patient information is obtained.

Grieving Process

stages of behaviors that people experience when a loss occurs. The process often takes a considerable time period and passage through it may not go smoothly or in the "proper" order.

Grieving Process: Stage 1

denial & isolation: the "no-not me" stage

Grieving Process: Stage 2

anger: "why me?" stage

Grieving Process: Stage 3

bargaining: bargain with God in an attempt to postpone the inevitable

Grieving Process: Stage 4

depression: realize the reality of their loss

Grieving Process: Stage 5

acceptance: patient is at peace with him/herself, controlled stage where intense feelings are absent.

Hemoptysis

bloody sputum

Hemostasis

stopping the flow of blood.

Hernia

protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the muscular wall.

Hyperplasia

an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ.

Hypertension

a persistently high arterial blood pressure.

Hypervolemia

an abnormal increase in the circulating blood volume.

Hypoplasia

underdevelopment of tissue or an organ, usually caused by a
decrease in the number of cells.

Hemorrhage

excessive bleeding.

Incontinence

inability to hold urine or feces.

Intercostal

between the ribs.

Interstitial

lying between;the spaces beween the cells;intercellular.

Intravenous

within a vein,often meaning an injection into a vein.

Ligation

the application of a tie around a vessel or hollow tube, such as the fallopian tubes.

Malaise

weakness, lack of energy, and vague sense of bodily discomfort.

Menorrhagia

profuse menstrual flow.

Metabolism

the chemical processes of life.

Metrorrhagia

abnormal bleeding from the uterus during the intermenstrual period.

Micturation

the passing of urine.

MI

heart attack.

Necrosis

the death or decay of one or more cells, or a portion of tissue
in which the growth is uncontrolled and progressive;usually results from an interruption of blood supply or injury.

Nephron

a microscopic functional unit in the cortex of the kidney.

Nocturia

excessive urination at night.

Occlusion

a blockage

Oophorectomy

the surgical removal of an ovary.

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