hormones that are derived from tyrosine or tryptophan
steroids are derived from
example of water soluble hormone (1)
example of water soluble hormone (2)
example of fat soluble hormone (1)
example of fat soluble hormone (2)
thyroid releasing hormone
hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone
hormone that stimulates the production of milk
hormone that stimulates the release of eggs in females
hormones that target smooth muscle uterine contractions (during birth and milk ejection)
Islets of Langerhans are found in the
hormone produced in adipose tissue that acts in satiation
stimulates elongation of bones, especially during puberty
acts on liver to produce insulin-like growth factor-1
causes them to molt
what effects do 20-hydroxyecdysone have on insect development
what are sex hormones for?
portion of parent organism pinches off to form complete new individual
complete organism formed from fragment of parent body
development of offspring from unfertilized eggs.
some animals reproduce sexually or parthenogentically
formation of games
simple to produce many copies
can reproduce asexually even if isolated
can reproduce rapidly
more prevalent in species that live in stable environments with little selection pressure for genetic diversity
requires 2 individuals
allows for greater genetic variation due to genetic recombination
process by which a gamate goes from 2n to n
contains genetic information passed onto child
contains mitochondria to keep cell alive
allows sperm to swim forward (not backward)
zona pellucid and cumulus mass
two layers that surround the ova
immunity - defenses present at birth and that function the same way regardless of invade.
immunity - develops after exposure and targets an invader specifically.
The nonspecific defense that uses membrane attack complex (MAC) to create channels in microbial plasma membrane
Interferons are proteins that generally inhibit viral replication inside host cells in response to viral infection.
Destroy or inactivate foreign invaders, clear the infected area from dead cells and other debris and set stage for tissue repair.
Engulf foreign matter and destroy it. (nonspecific defense)
Acquired response to exposure to antigen
Natural or as a vaccination/immunization
Direct transfer of antibodies from one individual to another
Naturally via placenta or breast milk
Artificially when human patient given IgG molecules (for example after exposure to hepatitis)
S hort-lived because memory cells are not produced
remember antigen that invaded the body so second response can be faster.
fast block to polyspermy
fusion between the egg and sperm depolarizes the eggs so that no more sperm may enter.
a solid ball of cells during cleavage
fluid filled central region of a blastocyst
cells of a blastocyst
does not change size
how does the size of a fertilized cell compare to the size of a blastocyst?