Biology II Exam III

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Biology II Exam 3 Flashcards

amines

hormones that are derived from tyrosine or tryptophan

cholesterol

steroids are derived from

epinephrine

example of water soluble hormone (1)

dopamine

example of water soluble hormone (2)

testosterone

example of fat soluble hormone (1)

cortisol

example of fat soluble hormone (2)

thyroid releasing hormone

hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone

prolactin

hormone that stimulates the production of milk

luteinizing hormone

hormone that stimulates the release of eggs in females

oxytocin

hormones that target smooth muscle uterine contractions (during birth and milk ejection)

endocrine portion

Islets of Langerhans are found in the

alpha and beta cells

Islets of Langerhans produce

alpha and beta cells

Islets of Langerhans produce

leptin

hormone produced in adipose tissue that acts in satiation

IGF-1

stimulates elongation of bones, especially during puberty

GH

acts on liver to produce insulin-like growth factor-1

causes them to molt

what effects do 20-hydroxyecdysone have on insect development

reproduction

what are sex hormones for?

budding

portion of parent organism pinches off to form complete new individual

regeneration

complete organism formed from fragment of parent body

parthenogenesis

development of offspring from unfertilized eggs.
some animals reproduce sexually or parthenogentically

gametogenesis

formation of games

asexual reproduction

simple to produce many copies
can reproduce asexually even if isolated
can reproduce rapidly
more prevalent in species that live in stable environments with little selection pressure for genetic diversity

sexual reproduction

requires 2 individuals
allows for greater genetic variation due to genetic recombination

spermatogenesis

process by which a gamate goes from 2n to n

head (sperm)

contains genetic information passed onto child

midpiece (sperm)

contains mitochondria to keep cell alive

flagellum (sperm)

allows sperm to swim forward (not backward)

zona pellucid and cumulus mass

two layers that surround the ova

innate immunity

immunity - defenses present at birth and that function the same way regardless of invade.

acquired immunity

immunity - develops after exposure and targets an invader specifically.

antimicrobial protein

The nonspecific defense that uses membrane attack complex (MAC) to create channels in microbial plasma membrane

nonspecific defense

Interferons are proteins that generally inhibit viral replication inside host cells in response to viral infection.

inflammation

Destroy or inactivate foreign invaders, clear the infected area from dead cells and other debris and set stage for tissue repair.

leukocytes

Engulf foreign matter and destroy it. (nonspecific defense)

active immunity

Acquired response to exposure to antigen
Natural or as a vaccination/immunization

passive immunity

Direct transfer of antibodies from one individual to another
Naturally via placenta or breast milk
Artificially when human patient given IgG molecules (for example after exposure to hepatitis)
S hort-lived because memory cells are not produced

plasma cells

produce antibodies

memory cells

remember antigen that invaded the body so second response can be faster.

fast block to polyspermy

fusion between the egg and sperm depolarizes the eggs so that no more sperm may enter.

blastocyst

a solid ball of cells during cleavage

blastocoel

fluid filled central region of a blastocyst

blastula

cells of a blastocyst

does not change size

how does the size of a fertilized cell compare to the size of a blastocyst?

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