Refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used.
Refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers.
A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures.
In linguistics, a grammar (or set of rules) that indicates the structure and interpretation of sentences which native speakers of a language accept as belonging to the language.
(1) In linguistics, the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.
(2) The arrangement of words in a sentence. Adjective: syntactic.
A sentence with only one independent clause (also known as a main clause).
A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses.
Compound sentences can be formed in three ways:
(1) using coordinating conjunctions;
(2) using the semicolon, either with or without conjunctive adverbs;
(3) on occasion, using the colon.
A sentence that contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
A word (one of the parts of speech and a member of a closed word class) that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. (by, like, as, to, toward, through, at, by, on, of, for, from, out of, out, before, on)
A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers.
A traditional grammatical term for a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. Adjective: gerundial.
A word group consisting of a present participle or past participle, plus any modifiers, objects, and complements. (ex. Invented by an Indiana housewife in 1889, the first dishwasher was driven by a steam engine.)
A construction in which one or more words come between the infinitive marker to and the verb (as in "to boldly go where no man has gone before").
Used to express that which is currently happening of is always true. Ex. Randy is playing the piano.
Used to express action that occurred in a past time. Ex. Randy learned to play the piano when he was six years old.
Use to express action or a condition of future time. Ex. Randy will probably earn a music scholarship.
Present Perfect Tense
Used to express action or a condition that started in the past and is continued to or completed in the present. Ex. Randy has practiced piano every day for the last ten years.
Past Perfect Tense
Used to express action or a condition that occurred as a precedent to some other action or condition. Ex. Randy had considered playing clarinet before he discovered the piano.
Future Perfect Tense
Used to express action that started in the past or the present and will conclude at some time in the future. Ex. By the time he goes to college, Randy will have been an accomplished pianist for more than half of his life.
Used to make unconditional statements. (stating a fact, expressing an opinion, asking a question.)
The mood of a verb expressing wishes, stipulating demands, or making statements contrary to fact.
I lie on the ground. I lay on the ground yesterday. I have lain down. / I lay the blanket on the bed. I laid the blanket there yesterday. I have laid the blanket every night.
end in -er
end in -est
Six Styles of Teaching
1. Task oriented
6. Emotionally exciting
The teacher prescribes the resources and identifies specific performances, some of which may be individualized.
The teacher and students plan the course of study and select resources together.
The student plans his own course of study based on his own interests.
Well-organized content dictates the course of study, with little regard to individual differences.
This style combines both child-centered and subject oriented approaches. The organized content and specific resources from which the student must select are prescribed.
Not centered on any planning method, this style merely categorizes those teachers who instruct with more emotion than structure.
Learning approach to Language Development
Assumes that language, cognitive, and social developments were independent of each other. Thus, children were expected to learn language from patterning after adults who spoke and wrote Standard English.
Linguistic approach to Language Development
Noam Chomsky. Theory that language ability is innate and develops through natural human maturation as environmental stimuli trigger acquisition of syntactical structures appropriate to each exposure level.
Cognitive approach to Language Development
Piaget. Children acquire knowledge of linguistic structures after they have acquired the cognitive structures necessary to process language. (Organizing concepts as well as concrete operations, predicting outcomes, and theorizing before they can assimilate and verbalize complex sentence structures, choose vocabulary for particular nuances or meaning, and examine semantic structures for tone and manipulative effect.)
Sociocognitive approach to Language Development
language development results from sociolinguistic competence. Language, cognitive, and social knowledges are interactive elements of total human development. It allowed that determining the appropriateness of language in given situations for specific listeners is as important as understanding semantic and syntactic structures.
Denotative and connotative meanings. Generally, denotative words point to things and connotative words deal with mental suggestions that the words convey.
Informative connotations are definitions agreed upon by the society in which the learner operates.
The personal feelings a word arouses.
Basic Expository Writing
Gives information not previously known about a topic or is used to explain or define one.
Centers on person, place, or object, using concrete and sensory words to create a modd or impression and arranging details in a chronological or spatial sequence.
Developed using an incident or anecdote or related series of events.
Implies the writer's ability to select vocabulary and arranges facts and opinions in such a way as to direct the actions of the listener/reader.
Oral use of communications
debating, discussion and conversation.
Stages of Writing
Prewriting: Brainstorm, research, journals...
Writing: Students compose the first draft.
Revising: Students examine their work and make changes in sentences, wording, details and ideas. "to see again"
Editing: Students proofread the draft for punctuation and mechanical errors.
Publishing: Students may have their work displayed, read aloud in class, or printed in a literary magazine or school anthology.
Grammar Instruction in the context of the writing
1. Sentence Combining
2. Sentence and paragraph modeling
3. Sentence transforming
4. Daily Language practice
The theory behind combining ideas and the correct punctuation should be emphasized.
Sentence and paragraph modeling
practice imitating the style and syntax of professional writers.
Change sentences from one to another
Daily language practice
introduce or clarify common errors using daily language activities. Correct and discuss the problems with grammar and usage.
Reading Emphasis in Middle School
SQ3R: (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review Studying)
Reading Emphasis in High School
Focus on interpretive and critical reading. Teacher becomes more of a facilitator than instructor.
1. Evaluate to determine what the students known
2. Devise a plan to teach the students what they must learn as part of continuum.
3. Determine if students have heard the words to be studied and in what context.
4. Teach vocabulary for MASTERY
A story in verse or prose with characters representing virtues and vices. There are two meanings, symbolic and literal. (John Bunyan - The pilgrim's Progress)
An in media res story told or sung, usually in verse and accompanied by music. Has a refrain, or repeated section, and incremental repetition, or anaphora, for effect. (The Rime of the Ancient Mariner)
Plays - comedy, modern or tragedy - typically in five acts. (Williams, Miller, Shaw, Sophocles)
Long poem usually of book length reflecting values inherent in the generative society. (Virgil's The Odyssey)
A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but due to the fame of the sender and/or recipient, becomes public domain. (The Bible)
Typically a limited length prose work focusing on a topic and propounding a definite point of view and authoritative tone. (Carlyle, Emerson, and Montaigne)
Terse tale offering up a moral or exemplum. (The Nun's Priest's Tale - Chaucer)
A traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, popularly regarded as historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction.
Stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions.
The longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterizations, settings, local color and regionalism. Most have complex plots, expanded description, and attention to detail. (Austin, the Brontes, Tolstoy)
The only requirement is rhythm. Ex: sonnet, elegy, ode, pastoral, and villanelle.
A highly imaginative tale set in a fantastical realm dealing with the conflicts between heroes, villains and/or monsters. (Chaucer)
Typically a terse narrative, with less development background about characters. May include description, author's point of view, and tone. (Hemingway, Faulkner, Twain)
Balanced writing about conflicting ideas, usually expressed in sentence form.
A focused, succinct expression about life from a sagacious viewpoint. (Ben Franklin) (Whatever is begun in anger, ends in shame)
Literary device and addressing an absent or dead person, an abstract idea, or an inanimate object. (Keats, Wordsworth, Julius Caesar when Mark Anthony addresses the corpse of Caesar)
Poetry written in iambic pentameter but unrhymed. (Shakespeare, Milton)
A pause, usually signaled by punctuation, in a line of poetry. (Beowulf - "To err is human, // to forgive, devine")
A comparison, usually in verse, between seemingly disparate objects or concepts. (Donne - "The Flea" compares a flea bite to the act of love)
The ripple effect surrounding the implications and associations of a given word, distinct from the denotative, or literal meaning.
The repeated usage of similar consonant sounds, most often used in poetry.
Two rhyming lines of poetry. (Shakespeare, Pope "Rape of the Lock)
What a word literally means, as opposed to its connotative meanings.
The right word in the right spot for the right purpose.
The moment when the proverbial light bulb goes off in one's head and comprehension sets in.
Fill-in or background information about characters meant to clarify and add to the narrative; the initial plot element which precedes the buildup of conflict.
Not meant in a literal sense, but to be interpreted through symbolism. Made up of such literary devices as hyperbole, metonymy, synecdoche, and oxymoron.
a figure of speech in which the word for part of something is used to mean the whole; for example, "sail" for "boat," or vice versa.
Poetry that does not have any predictable meter or patterning.
Exaggeration for a dramatic effect.
The two elements in a set five-foot line of poetry. An iamb is two syllables, unaccented and accented, per foot or measure. Pentameter means five feet of these iambs per line or ten syllables.
A typical sentence order to create a given effect or interest.
An unexpected disparity between what is written or stated and what is really meant or implied by the author. (Verbal, situational, and dramatic are the three literary ironies)
what an author says one thing and means something else.
when an audience perceives something that a character in the literature does not know.
A discrepancy between the expected result and actual results.
Another way to describe a person, place, or thing so as to avoid prosaic repetition.
Verse characterization by ingenious wit, unparalleled imagery, and clever conceits.
Use of an object or idea closely identified with another object or idea to represent the second.
A key, oft-repeated phrase, name, or idea in a literary work.
Word used to evoke the sound in its meaning. Ex: pow, zap, whop, zonk, and eek.
A specific eight-line stanza of poetry whose rhyme scheme is abababcc.
A contradictory form of speech, such as jumbo shrimp, unkindly kind.
Seemingly untrue statement, which when examined more closely proves to be true.
A type of close repetition of clauses or phrases that emphasize key topics or ideas in writing.
Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects or concepts.
A poetic stanza composed of four lines.
The two-part analysis of a poetic line. Count the number of syllables per line and determine where the accents fall. Divide the line into metric feet. Name the meter by the type and number of feet.
A highlighted speech, in drama, usually delivered by a major character expounding on the author's philosophy or expressing, at times, universal truths. This is done with the character alone on the stage.
Invented by Sir Edmund Spenser. Each stanza consists of nine lines, eight in iambic parameter. The ninth line, called an alexandrine, has two extra syllables or one additional foot.
Invented an used extensively by the poet Gerard Manley Hopkinds. Consists of variable meter, which combines stressed and unstressed syllables fashioned by the author.
Stream of Consciousness
A style of writing which reflects the mental processes of the characters expressing, at times, jumbled memories, feelings, and dreams. (Woolf)
A series of poetic stanzas utilizing the recurrent rhyme scheme of aba, bcb, cdc, ded, and so forth.
The discernible attitude inherent in an author's work regarding the subject, readership, or characters.
Writing of genius, keenness, and sagacity expressed through clever use of language.
Patterned after the greatest writings of classical Greece and Rome, this type of writing is characterized by balanced, graceful, well-crafted, refined, elevated style. (Dryden, Pope). The self is not exalted and focus is on the group, not the individual, in neoclassic writing.
Writings emphasizing the individual. Emotions and feelings are validated. Nature acts as an inspiration for creativity. Romantics hearken back to medieval, chivalric themes and ambiance.
First Generation: (Wordsworth, Coleridge)
Second Generation: (Byron, Keats, Shelley) stressed personal introspection and the love of beauty and nature as requisites of inspiration.
Realistic writers deal with the common man and his socio/economic problems in a non-sentimental way. Muckraking, social injustice, domestic abuse, and inner city conflicts are examples of writings by writers of realism (Hemingway)
This is realism pushed to the maximum, writing which exposes the underbelly of society, usually the lower class struggles.
Characteristics of Native American works
reverence for an awe of nature.
the interconnectedness of the elements in the life cycle.
Themes of Native American works
The hardiness of the native body and soul.
Remorse for the destruction of their way of life.
The genocide of many tribes by the encroaching settlement and Manifest Destiny policies of the US Government.
Characteristics of Colonial Period: NE and the South
Neo-classical, emphasizing order, balance, clarity and reason.
Themes of Colonial Period: NE and the South
Lives and experiences of the New England expatriates who left England to find religious freedom.
Reveals the commercial and political adventures or the Cavaliers.
Major works of Revolutionary Period
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
Benjamin Franklin: Poor Richard's Almanac
Patrick Henry: Speech to the Virginia House
Thomas Jefferson: The Declaration of Independence.
John & Abigail Jefferson: Epistles
Characteristics of Romantic Period
Emergence of a distinctly American writing, not just a stepchild to English forms.
Uniquely American folklore devoid of English influences.
Major works for the Romantic Period
Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
Melville: Moby Dick
Poe: The Raven, The Tell Tale Heart, The Cask of Amontillado
Transcending the complexities of life and getting the "marrow out of life" (Emerson, Thoreau)
Frank Norris (The Pit), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
They wrote of common, ordinary people and events using details that would reveal the harsh realities of life. They broached taboos by creating protagonists whose environments often destroyed them.
Writers would have only protagonists whose indomitable wills helped them rise above adversity.
American Drama (Arthur Miller), American Fiction (F. Scott Fitzgerald), American Poetry (Robert Frost)
American Indian Literature (Culture)
The foundation is found in story-telling, oratory, autobiographical and historical accounts of tribal billage life, reverence for the environment, and the postulation that the earth with all of its beauty was given in trust, to be cared for and passed on to future generations.
Afro-American Literature (Culture)
1. Oppression, slavery, and the re-construction of the post-Civil War/rural South (Pre-Civil War)
2. Inner city strife.single parenting, drug abuse, lack of educational opportunities and works advancement etc. that was controlled by biased and disinterested factions of society. (Post-Civil War and Reconstruction)
3. Post-Civil Rights and the emergence of the BLACK movement focusing on biographical and autobiographical Black heroes and their contribution to Black and American culture. (Post Civil War - Present)
Write to retain cultural heritage, share their people's stuggle for recognition, independence, and survival, and express their hopes for the future. (De Cervantes-Starfish, Neruda-Collections of poetry)
Edith Wharton - Ethan Frome
Willa Cathers - My Antonia and Death Comes for the Archbishop
Kate Chopin - The Awakening