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Adrenal cortex

Outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones

Adrenal medulla

Inner section of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

Ovaries

Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and pregesterone secretion

Pancreas

Located behind the stomach ;also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.

Parathyroid glands

Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland.

Pituitary gland

Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe.

Testes

Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.

Thyroid gland

Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.

Adrenaline

Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone

Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt reabsorption.

Androgen

Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex.

Antidiuretic hormone

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland ;increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.

Calcitonin

Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.

Cortisol

Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar.

Epinephrine

Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways. It is a part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction.

Estradiol

Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.

Estrogen

Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes.

Glucagon

Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogon to glucose.

Growth hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.

Insulin

Secreted by beta islet cells of the pancreas; helps glucose to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycagon.

Luteinizing hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.

Norepinephrine

Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Oxytocin

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.

Parathormone

Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.

Progesterone

Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Prolactin

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.

Somatropin

Secreted by the antrior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.

Testosterone

Male hormone secreted by the testes.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone thyrotropin

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning.

Thyroxine

Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine; increases metabolism in cells.

Triiodothyronine

Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells.

Vasopressin

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Catecholamines

Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla.

Electrolyte

Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells

Glucocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat and protein metabolism.

Homeostasis

Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.

Hormone

Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of the organ or gland.

Hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.

Mineralocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts and water balance in the body.

Receptor

Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.

Sella turcica

Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.

Sex hormones

Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.

Steroid

Complex substance related to fats, and of which many hormones are made.

Sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.

Target tissue

Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

Adenectomy

Surgical removal of any gland.

Adrenopathy

Any disease of the adrenal glands.

Adrenalectomy

The total or partial surgical resection of one or both adrenal glands.

Gonadotropin

A hormonal substance that stimulates the function of the testes and the ovaries.

Hypogonadism

A deficiency in the secretory activity of the ovary or testis.

Pancreatectomy

The surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas.

Parathyroidectomy

The surgical removal of the parathyroid gland.

Hypopituitarism

An abnormal condition caused by diminished activity of the pituitary gland resulting in decreased secretion of its hormones.

Thyrotropic hormone

anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland

Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Androgen

Male hormone.

Hypercalcemia

Greater than normal amounts of calcium in the blood.

Hypercalciuria

The presence of abnormally great amounts of calcium in the urine.

Corticosteroid

Any steroid hormone produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex.

Endocrinologist

A physician who specializes in rhe endocrine system and its disorders.

Polydipsia

Excessive thirst.

Estrogenic

Pertaining to estrogen.

Glucagon

Produced by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Raises blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver.

Hyperglycemia

A greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood.

Glycemic

Pertaining to sugar.

Hormonal

Pertaining to or resembling hormones.

Hypokalemia

A condition in which an inadequate amount of potassium is found in the circulating bloodstream.

Myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood.

Hyponatremia

A lower than normal concentration of sodium in the blood.

Hypophysectomy

Surgical removal of the pituitary gland.

Thyrotoxicosis

Condition caused by excessive thryroid gland activity and oversecretion of thyroid hormone.

Hypoglycemia

A low level of glucose in the blood.

Adrenocorticotropin

The adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the adenophyophysis that stimulates secretion of corticosteroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.

Glycosuria

Abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.

Euthyroid

Pertaining to a normal thyroid gland.

Hyperkalemia

Greater than normal amounts of potassium in the blood.

Hypoinsulinism

A deficiency of insulin secretion by cells in the pancreas.

Panhypopituitarism

Deficiency of all pituitary hormones.

Tetraiodothyronine

A hormone of the thyroid gland, derived from tyrosine and deiodinated in the periphery to T3 that stimulates metabolic rate.

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GH

Growth hormone

hCG or HCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

PRL

Prolactin

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

T4

Thyroxine-tetraiodothyronine

TFT

Thyroid function test

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

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