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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males

Progesterone

A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstral cycle.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

from the blastocyst. stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone at a higher rate

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion

pituitary

gland that is the master gland of the endocrine system

epididymis

structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored

Fallopian Tube

either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus

Embryo

An organism in the earliest stage of development

Seminal Vesicle

a gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm

Placenta

the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus

Prostate

A small gland encircling the male urethra just inferior to the bladder (only reproductive structure not paired). Its secretion contain nutrients and enzymes and account for approximately 35% of the ejaculate volume.

Seminiferous Tubules

site of sperm formation in testes

Scrotum

the external pouch that contains the testes

Ovary

(vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone

Corpus Luteum

endocrine tissue which produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo

Follicle

cluster of cells surrounding a single egg in the human female reproductive system

Prolactin

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that tarets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.

Testes

The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.

Uterus

organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop

Menstrual Cycle

a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy

Endometrium

(pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus

luteal phase

phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by the formation of the corpus luteum following ovulation

Follicular phase

the stage in which an immature egg completes its first meiotic division, What phase of the female cycle occurs during days 1 to 15?

Interstitial cells

in the testes, these cells lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone

Vagina

in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body

Mammary Glands

specialized organs in mammals that produce milk to nourish the young

Parturition

the process of giving birth

Gestation

the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans), the state of being pregnant

Oxytocin

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin)

Androgen

male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics

Blastocyst

stage in human embryonic development; fluid-filled ball of cells that implants in the endometrium

Gastrula

double-walled stage of the embryo resulting from invagination of the blastula, An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Blastula

The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development

Blastocoel

Fluid filled cavity within the hollow ball of embryonic cells

Primitive Streak

In chickens, a linear furrow analogous to a blastopore, stage after formation of a blastocyst. a slit forms in the center of the sheet of cells & cells migrate into the slit & under the original layer of cells to create a double layered disc

Yolk

Cells in the early hollow sphere of embryonic cells

Polyspermy

The fertilization of an oocyte by more than one sperm. This occurs in some animals, but in humans, blocks to polyspermy exist (the fast block and the slow block) so that only a single sperm can penetrate the oocyte.

Archenteron

The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.

Acrosome

a process at the anterior end of a sperm cell that produces enzymes to facilitate penetration of the egg

Ectoderm

germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue

Endoderm

germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

Mesoderm

germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue

Neural Tube

a tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop

Homeotic Gene

one the genes that are involved in embryologic development

Morula

stage of early development characterized by a solid ball of 16-32 blastomeres

Meroblastic Cleavage

Cleavage of just the embryo and not the yolk sac.

Holoblastic Cleavage

Cleavage of the entire zygote including the yolk sac.

Blastospore

In a gastrula, the opening of the archenteron that typically develops into the anus in deuterostomes and the mouth in protostomes.

Allantois

Receptical for waste disposal in chick embryo

Somite

one of a series of similar body segments into which some animals are divided longitudinally

Budding

reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent

Pheromones

Chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species

Leydig Cells

A cell that produces testosterone and other androgens and is located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

Ovulation

the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)

Cervix

entrance to the uterus

Estrous cycle

A reproductive cycle characteristic of female mammals except higher primates, in which the nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed, and sexual response occurs only during mid-cycle at estrus.

Proliferative Phase

lasts 9 days. endometrium thickens in response to increased estrogen. ends with ovulation

Secretory Phase

The third phase of the uterin (endometrial) cycle, during which the rebuilt endometrium is enhanced with glycogen and lipid stores. This is primarily under the controll of progestone and estrogen (secreted from the copus luteum during this time period), adn typically lasts from day 15 to day 28 of the menstrual cycle.

Menstrual Flow Phase

the portion of the uterine cycle when menstrual bleeding occcurs

Implantation

(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals

Acrosomal Reaction

The discharge of a sperm's acrosome when the sperm approaches an egg.

Cortical Reaction

cortical granules come out of egg to harden the zona pellucida (zona reaction in human)

Fertilization Envelope

the swelling of the vitelline layer away from the plasma membrane

Zona Pellucida

A thick, transpartent coating rich in glycoproteins that surrounds an oocyte.

Animal Pole

The portion of the egg where the least yolk is concentrated; opposite of vegetal pole.

Vegetal Pole

The portion of the egg where most yolk is concentrated; opposite of animal pole.

Gray Crescent

Location between animal and vegetal poles

Yolk Plug

A patch of vegetal cells (endoderm) that remains exposed in the blastopore after the formation of the ventral lip during gastrulation.

Neurulation

Formation of Neural Tube

Organogenesis

process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development

Neural Crest

group of cells that develop from the nerve cord and can form portions of the brain & skull, certain sense organs and nerve fibers

Neural Tube

area in the embryo from which the nervous system develops

Notochord

long supporting rod that runs through a chordate's body just below the nerve cord

Amniotes

their embryos are protected by external membranes

Extraembryonic Membranes

Four membranes (yolk sac, amnion, chorion, allantois) that support the developing embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Inner Cell Mass

The mass of cells in the blastocyst that ultimately give rise to the embryo and other embryonic structues (the amion, the umbilical vessels, etc.)

Blastomeres

An early embryonic cell arising during the cleavage stage of an early embryo.

Hydrolytic Enzymes

enzymes that speed up/aid in the breakdown of chemical bonds through the addition of water (hydrolysis)

Vitelline Layer

The membrane, usually of protein fibres, immediately outside the cell membrane of the ovum and the earlier stages of the developing embryo.

Acrosomal Process

The sperm forms a tubelike structure called the _________ _______, which extends to the cell membrane and penetrates it, fusing the sperm cell membrane with that of the ovum.

Cortical Granules

Causes changes in the vitelline membrane that harden it; activated by signal transduction pathway that increases the amount of Ca++ in the egg.

Parthenogenesis

A form of sexual reproduction in which an egg develops without being fertilized

Amnion

Membrane in chick that surrounds embryo and yolk

Fertilization

Joining of Egg and Sperm

Albumin

Plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in blood

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