primary name for calcium
made up of 65% calcium phosphates, osteoid mineralizes as the calcium phosphate crystalizes & precipitates, enchances compressive strenth. Very hard, durable, supportive & strong.
fancy name for ground substance & fibers. Prodominately collagen.
cells produce osteoid, 35% of total composition are cytes & blasts, adds flexibility & tensile strength.
organic & inorganic
What are the 2 main components in chemical composition of bone.
blood cell formation
a hollow space between the lamellae & communicate via canaliculi.
protection, body temp regulation, cutaneous sensation, metabolic function, excretion
List 5 functions of the integumentary system
chemical, physical, biological
Name 3 sub functions of protection in the integumentary system
chemical sub function of protection
dermicidin, defensins, secretions-low PH
physical sub function of protection
cells filled w/ keratin and glycolipids; except oils from poison ivy, heavy metals
biological sub function of protection
dendritic cells w/in the epidermis
body temp regulation
eccrine glands produce sweat
hair follicle receptors
nerve endings associated w/ follicles (unencapsulated)
smooth muscle, under sympathetic nervous system control, upon contraction, hair stands right up. FRIGHT OR FLIGHT REACTION
arrector pili & hair follicle receptors
What are the 2 structures associated w/ hair matrix
highly mitotic, pushes daughter cells superiorly to create hair shaft
epitelia root sheaths
external & internal that surround dermal papilla
an infolding of the epidermis, epidermis invaginates into dermis and terminates in a hairbulb
analogousto, stratum basale (very mitotic), daughter cells push forward & become root of nail, free edge, filled w/ keratin, very protective, no flakiness, more durable
single layer of cells arranged as shingles, scale-like keeps them apart, prevents clumping
cuticle, cortex & medulla (central core)
What is the hair shafts 3 layers
holocrine secretion, fill up & rupture, secretes sebum, softens & lubricates, large gland-face & neck, small gland- trunk & limbs
larger than eccrine, ducts empty into hair follicles, sercretion is water, plus fats & proteins, viscous, milky fluid, "normal floral" bacterial growth causes STINK. Most prodominant in the axillary regions & anogenital area
Describe apocrine sweat glands
A.K.A cold sweat, starts on palms, soles of feet, brought on by , flight or fright
Describe "emotionally enduced" sweat
prevents overheating of the body. H2O molecules absorb body heat in order to vaporize
Describe heat enduced sweat
heat enduced and emotionally enduced
What are 2 types of sweat
sympathetic nervous system
involuntary automic response of excitement, emergency. The flight or fright response
eccrine sweat gland
small, very numerous, most abdundant on palms, soles & forehead, regulated by the sympathetic nervous system. They release product that is 90% h2o, some salt, dermicidin, & antibodies
apocrine & eccrine
Name 2 types of sweat glands
renew cell population and rapid division of cells
The primary role of stratum basale is to?
keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic cells & merkel cells
Name 4 cell types that comprise the epidermis
skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle
Name 3 types of muscle tissue
lacunae- a hollow space
Osteocytes reside in the?
A.K.A perforating canals, perpendicular to central canals, allow vascular communication between osteons & between the medulary cavity
Define Volkmann's canals
Osteons are A.K.A?
groups of 3 or 4 hollow tubes w/in each other, hollow center contains vessels and nerves
microscopic anantomy of compact bone
can be found in diaphyses & edges of flat compact bone
marrow cavities w/ reticular connective tissue, line up along the lines of stress
Compact bone is A.K.A
There are no osteons in?
Hemocytoblast reside in the?
hips (coxal), stem cells
Location of Irregular bone?
w/in the trabecular cavities, sternum, head of femur thumerus
Location of hematopoltic tissue?
diploe, trabecular, cancellous bone
Flat bone is also know as?
not long, structure is different, spongy look, but very dense
fused fragment called trabecular
Spongey bone is made up of?
tiny fibers that attach the periosteum to the bone
a snug covering to the long bone. examples: tendons, and ligaments
osteoblasts (produce bone), and osteoclasts (absorbs bone)
What does the osteogenic layer consist of?
the hollow shaft, has medullary cavity, covered by periosteum, dense irregular connective tissue (outer layer), and inner layer is thin (osteogenic layer)
long bone; ossified "growth plate"
ends of the long bone, filled with spongy bone
blood cell formation
in red marrow of bones, known as hematopoiesis
calcium & phosphorus (the reservoir for the calcium & phosphorus)
bone function movement
arrangement of bones & joint design
limbs support trunk
Bones that support?
rib cage protects lungs, vertebral column protects spinal cord, and skull protects brain
Bones that protect?
vertebrae, and coxal bones
Name the irregular bones?
ribs, sternum, scapula, bones of the skull
Name the flat bones?
ankle, wrist, and patella
Name the short bones?
all the limbs have long bones & the clavicle
Name the long bones?
limbs & girdles (shoulder & pelvic)
skull, spine, rib cage
dense irregular connective tissue, prevents unnecessary expansion
menisci of knee, pubic symphesis
Name the skeletal fibrocartilage locations?
external ear, epiglottis
Name the skeletal elastic cartilage locations?
aritcular, costal, nasal, respiratory
Name the skeletal hyaline cartilage locations
blood reservoir-5% of our blood volume is in dermis. Chemical conservation- vitamin D protection begins in the skin & ends in kidneys
epiderm- merkel discs, dermis are the free nerve endings
Name the cutaneous sensation sensory receptors
inflammation, organization, regeneration
Name 3 stages of tissue repair
papillary & reticular layer
Name 2 most superficial dermis layers
stratum basale, spinosum, granulosom, and corneum
Name the four layers of the epidermis
What kind of tissue is epidermis