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continent

Earth's largest land areas

hemisphere

half of the Earth

equator

imaginary line between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere

relative location

location of a place where it is compared to one or more other places on Earth

mountain range

group of connected mountains

Pacific Rim

states and other countries that border the Pacific Ocean

absolute location

exact position on the Earth

lines of latitude

lines that mapmakers draw on maps that run east and west/parallels

lines of longitude

lines that mapmakers draw on maps that run to the North and South/meridians

prime meridian

passes near London, England, starting point for lines of longitude

natural region

region made up of places that share the same kinds of physical, natural features

coastal plain

area of low land that lies along the ocean

fault

crack in the Earth's surface along which underground layers of rock can move

volcano

opening in the Earth's surface from which hot gases, ashes, and lave pour

lava

hot, melted rock from deep inside the Earth

fertile

soil that is good for growing crops

irigation

use of canals, ditches, or pipes to carry water to dry places

sea level

land that is level with the surface of the ocean

basin

a low, bowl-shaped land area with ground all around it

plateau

an area of high, flat land

elevation

the height of the land above sea level

inlet

is a narrow strip of water leading in to the land from a larger body of water

harbor

place on a coast-often in a bay-where ships can dock

tributary

smaller river that flows into a larger river

river system

a river and its tributaries

erosion

the wearing away, of the Earth's surface

channel

path for the river to flow through

floodplain

the low flat land along a river

delta

land built up at a river's mouth

reservoir

a lake made by people to collect and store water

hydroelectric power

electricity made by using the power of rushing water

temperature

measure of how warm or cold something is

precipitation

water in the form of rain, sleet, or snow that falls to the Earth's surface

climate

kind of weather a place has most often

air masses

large, moving bodies of air

humidity

amount of moisture in the air

rain shadow

drier side of the mountains

drought

a long time with little or no rain

Santa Ana winds

hot, dry winds named by early settlers of Santa Ana

canyon

deep, narrow valley with steep sides

product

something that people make or grow, usually to sell

growing season

length of time when the weather is warm enough for crops to grow

mineral

natural substance found in rocks

manufacturing

making of goods

fuel

natural resource used to make heat or energy

petroleum

another name for oil

nonrenewable resource

a resource that cannot be made again by nature or people

renewable resource

a resource that can be made again by nature or by people

habitats

places where animals find food and shelter

extinct

when animals die out

land use

how most of the land in a place is used

crossroads

Any place that connects people, goods, and ideas.

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