arch vs post and lintel construction
A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally. See also thrust
The perception of depth in nature can be enhanced by the appearance of atmospheric haze. Although this haze is most commonly humidity (or cloudiness), it could be rain or snow, smoke, or any other kind of vapor. Aerial perspective is the portrayal of that atmospheric haze -- one means to adding to an illusion of depth in depicting space on a flat surface. It is achieved by using less focus, along with bluer, lighter, and duller hues for the distant spaces and objects depicted in a picture. Be careful not to confuse aerial perspective with aerial view.
In Roman architecture, a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other.
Brought by merchant ships from China
Painting on lime plaster. In wet (true or buon fresco) the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method.
In painting, a full-size preliminary drawing from which a painting is made.
The horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. In an axial plan, the parts of a building are organized longitudinally, or along a given axis; in a central plan, the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center.
In drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that produce the effect of modeling
An independent, self-governing city
Italian, "colored" or "painted." A term used to describe the application of paint. Characteristic of the work of 16th-century Venetian artists who emphasized the application of paint as an important element of the creative process. Central Italian artists, in contrast, largely emphasized disegnothe careful design preparation based on preliminary drawing
A vertical, weight-carrying architectural member, circular in cross-section and consisting of a base (sometimes omitted), a shaft, and a capital
The disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating a counterpositioning of the body about its central axis. Sometimes called weight shift because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other
council of trent
An ecumenical council is a conference of the bishops of the whole Christian Church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. It convened in Trent
"A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in response to the Protestant Reformation.
The space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept
A picture or bas-relief made of two panels hinged together, often an altarpiece.
Italian, "drawing" and "design." Renaissance artists considered drawing to be the external physical manifestation (disegno esterno) of an internal intellectual idea of design (disegno interno).
A hemispheric vault; theoretically, an arch rotated on its vertical axis
The process of incising a design in hard material, often a metal plate (usually copper); also, the print or impression made from such a plate.
A sculpture or an image of a person riding a horse, often a monarch or military leader.
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
free standing sculpture (in the round)
To be viewed from all sides; freestanding. When referring to sculpture, a type that is surrounded on all sides by space. ...
A method of painting on plaster
The depiction of subjects and scenes from everyday life, ordinary folk and common activities.
hierarchy of scale
the manipulation of size and space in a picture to emphasize importance of a specific object.
a form that extends at least halfway out of the background.
In the Renaissance, an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty.
A layer of thickly applied pigment
A graphic technique in which the design is incised, or scratched, on a metal plate, either manually (engraving, drypoint) or chemically (etching). The incised lines of the design take the ink, making this the reverse of the woodcut technique.
A method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface. In linear perspective, all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended distance between eye and object increases.
a very slight extension of a form out of the background
A luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations.
a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century.
refers to the effect of light on a three-dimensional form. The three-dimensional quality of such a form is emphasized by means of light, shadow, and color. Reproducing the effect of light, shadow, and color in a drawing of such a form makes it seem more realistic.
The central area of an ancient Roman basilica or of a church, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns.
A painting technique using oil-based pigments that rose to prominence in northern Europe in the 15th century and is now the standard medium for painting on canvas.
A method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface. In linear perspective, the most common type, all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended distance between eye and object increases.
flat, rectangular column (often fluted) with a capital and base, attached to or set into a wall as an ornamental motif. It may be decorative or used to buttress the wall.
An altarpiece made up of more than three sections
It is a movement that began in northern Europe in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices.
European Christian reform movement that established Protestantism
The cultural and artistic events of 15th century Italy are collectively referred to as the Quattrocento (from the Italian for the number 400, or from "millequattrocento," 1400). Quattrocento encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages (most notably International Gothic) and the early Renaissance.
The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church, carried out by Western European Catholics who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice
A type of sculpture in which form projects from a background.
French, "rebirth." The term used to describe the history, culture, and art of 14th- through 16th-century western Europe during which artists consciously revived the classical style
In a ribbed vault, there is a framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections.
To give a rustic appearance by roughening the surfaces and beveling the edges of stone blocks to emphasize the joints between them. Rustication is a technique employed in ancient Roman architecture, and popular during the Renaissance, especially for stone courses at the ground-floor level. (Chapter 21)
Italian, "smoky." A smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting; particularly applied to the painting of Leonardo da Vinci and Correggio.
A raised horizontal molding, or band in masonry, ornamental but usually reflecting interior structure
A technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue, or casein; also the medium itself.
Painting in the "shadowy manner," using violent contrasts of light and dark, as in the work of Caravaggio. The term derives from tenebroso
The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle
A three-paneled painting or altarpiece.
French, "deceives the eye." Illusionistic painting.
1511 - 1574 Italian painter, writer, historian and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
80-70 BC, died after c. 15 BC was a Roman writer, architect and engineer, active in the 1st century BC. He is best known as the author of the multi-volume work De Architectura ("On Architecture"). *See DaVinci "Vitruvian Man"