Chapter 4: Male Anatomy & Physiology

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Penis

A male sexual organ consisting of the internal root and external shaft and glans.

Cavernous bodies

The structures in the shaft of the penis that engorge with blood during sexual arousal.

Root

The portion of the penis that extends internally into the pelvic cavity.

Glans

The head of the penis; it is richly endowed with nerve endings.

Shaft

The length of the penis between the glans and the body.

Foreskin (Prepuce)

A covering of skin over the penile glans.

Corona

The rim of the penile glans.

Frenulum

A highly sensitive think strip of skin that connects the glans to the shaft on the underside of the penis.

Scrotum

The pouch of skin of the external male genitals that encloses the testes.

Testis/Testicle

Male gonad inside the scrotum that produces sperm and sex hormones.

Spermatic Cord

A cord attached to the testis that contains the vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and cremasteric muscle fibers.

Sperm are produced in ?

Seminiferous tubules (thin, coiled structures in the testes)

Intersitial Cells

Cells located between the seminiferous tubules that are the major source of androgen in males.

Cryptochidism

A condition in which the testes fail to descend from the abdominal cavity to the scrotal sac.

What happens to the testicles what the environment is hot.

heat causes the scrotal skin to relax and the testes to descend.

3 Risks associated with Cryptorchidism?

1. Testicular Cancer
2. Infertility
3. Inguinal Hernias

Which testicle hangs lower?

The left hangs lower (because the left spermatic cord is generally lower than the right testis.

2 Structures within the testicles that are the site of sperm production.

1. Seminiferous Tubules
2. Epididymis

structure that serves as the site for storage and maturation of sperm.

Epididymus

What structure is cut during a vasectomy?

Vas Deferens

Seminiferous Tubules

Thin, coiled structures in the testes in which sperm are produced.

Epididymis

The structure along the back of each testis in which sperm maturation occurs.

Vas Deferens

A sperm-carrying tube that begins at the testis and ends at the urethra

Urethra

The tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body

3 Structures that supply the fluid portion of semen.

1. Seminal Vesicles (provides most fluid)
2. Prostate Gland
3. Cowper's Glands

Seminal Vesicles

Small glands adjacent to the terminals of the vas deferens that secrete an alkaline fluid (conductive to sperm motility) that constitutes the greatest portion of the volume of seminal fluid released during ejaculation.

Prostate Gland

A gland located at the base of the bladder that produces about 30% of the seminal fluid released during ejaculation.

Cowper's Glands

Two pea-sized glands located alongside the base of the urethra in the male that secrete an alkaline fluid during sexual arousal.

Ejaculatory Duct

Two short ducts located within the prostate gland.

What structure provides that major portion of the seminal fluid in semen.

Seminal Vesicals

Smegma

A cheesy substance of glandular secretions and skin cells that sometimes accumulates under the foreskin of the penis or hood of the clitorus.

Urology

The medical specialty dealing with reproductive health and genital diseases of the male and urinary tract diseases in both sexes.

Typical range for the number of sperm found in the semen of a single ejaculation

200-500 Million

Average volume of seminal fluid produced by a man as a result of ejaculation

Roughly 1 teaspoon on average

What is the physiologic process that causes an erection?

When a male becomes sexually excited, the nervous system sends out messages that cause expansion of the arteries leading to the 3 erectile cylinders (cavernous bodies-2, 1 spongy body) in the penis. As a result, the rate of blood flow into these parallel cylinders increases rapidly. Because blood flowing out of the penis through veins cannot keep up with the inflow, it accumulat3es in the spongelike tissues of the erectile cylinders, causing erection. The penis remains erect until the messages from the nervous system stop and the inflow of blood returns to normal.

2 Stages of Ejaculation

1. Emission phase
2. Expulsion Phase

Emisson Phase

The first stage of male orgasm (ejaculation), in which the semnial fluid is gathered in the uretheral bulb.

Expulsion Phase

The second stage of male orgasm (ejaculation), during which the semen is expelled from the penis by muscular contractions.

Where does the semen go during retrograde ejaculation?

into the bladder

Wet Dreams AKA

Nocturnal Emissions AKA

The purpose of for the sugar secreted by the seminal vesicles.

seems to contribute to sperm nutrition and motility.

3 adverse conditions that occur less frequently in circumcised males.

1. Childhood urinary tract infections
2. adult penile cancer
3. genital wart infections
4. increased protection against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

3 arguments that have been raised against routine circumcision.

1. the foreskin could serve some important function yet to be determined.
2. some investigators have expressed concern that sexual function may be altered by excising the foreskin
3. traumatic for a newborn and invites possible surgical complications.

age group that has the highest incidence of penile cancer.

over the age of 50

age group that has the highest incidence of testicular cancer.

20 to 35

condition that occurs in 50% of men aged 50-70 and causes problems with urine flow.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

Test used to screen for prostate cancer.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

Test used to screen for prostate cancer. detectable by a blood test

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