WWI - Long Term Causes: Crises preceding WWI: Moraccan Crises
1. Moraccan Crisis 1905: France can have Morocco if they support Great Britain's control of Egypt. In the Algeciras Conferance (Germany), it is dicussed if France and Great Britain should get land. It ends up isolating Germany even further as France and Great Britain becomes closer since they both resent Bismark in interfering with their affairs.
2. Moroccan Crisis 1911: France tries to annex Morrocco, but other countries are concerned because it is not imperialism since France isn't just making it a colony. France decides to put its troops in Morrocco first.
Results of the 2 Moroccan Crises: Germany is isolated (not as strong/powerful as once thought), Great Britain and France form an alliance. This alliance creates a tension between Russians, Austro-Hungarians, and __
WWI - Long Term Causes: Crises preceding WWI: Balkan Crises 1912-1913
nicknamed "the sick man of Europe" because of its declining power, losing land
1. Balkan Wars: In the first Balkan war, the Balkan peninsula is set up in land owndership for Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria. Serbia needs water access because they're land locked. These 3 regions attack the Ottomans. There is a fear that Austria-Hungary could take more land because of their multi-ethnic empire, which would compell them to help out their ethnicities of other countries (i.e. Serbia). Russia likes the Blakan peninsula, but Serbia is not worried about Russia because they share the same people - Slavs - so they can help each other.
Russia's goal = pan-Slavianism, which means one large area made up of all Slavs. (Like an mono-ethnic country)
Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Greece fight and win
In the second Balkan war, Serbia fights against Bulgaria because they want access to the Black Sea, but Serbia doesn't win. Serbia wanted the Black Sea because it borders Russia and so they wouldn't have to travel through the other side with the Adriatic Sea through Austria-Hungary.
Results of the Bulkan Wars: Russia and Serbia become allies, while their hatred towards Austria-Hungary intensifies
WWI - Long Term Causes: Nationalism
1. France: In the Franco-Prussian War (1771), they lost Alsace and Lorraine so they want revenge.
2. Serbia: They don't like Austria-Hungary. They want to expand and unite the Slavic people through pan-Slavism (unite all Slavic people into one big country).
3. Subject-nationalities: The ethnicities want independence - their own nation state. Subject-nationalities are people who are subjects of someone else not like you (in terms of ethnicity).
WWI - Long Term Causes: Imperialism
1. France and Germany clashed over Morocco (Germany loses?); Algeciras Conference
2. Russia and Austria-Hungary are rivals in the Balkans
3. Great Britain and Germany highly industrialized
WWI - Long Term Causes: Militarism
1. Germany: From 1910 to 1911, their defense increases by 73%. In order to have a good economy, you need a good navy, not just a good military. Germany didn't have such a strong navy before and so they were trying to improve themselves.
2. France: Schneider, increase 10% because they had industrialized earlier.
3. Great Britain: increased 13% because they also had industrialized earlier. GB and France were not as far behind as Germany and Russia
4. Russia: 39% increase in defenses
Causes competition/threat to one another
WWI - Long or Short Term Causes: International Anarchy (1800s)
Definition: an ineffective peace order group for foreign affairs of multiple countries
Ex) Hague Tribunal: a way to settle an internation dispute, though could not force a resolution, which leads to tension
WWI - Long or Short Term Causes: Alliances
1. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Bismark was the leader, keeping peace, as well as keeping France isolated. Austria-Hungary has a conflict with Russia over the Balkans because they both want to take over the Balkan area. Italy wants Tunisia because in 1881, France had taken Tunisia. Italy was made so it formed an alliance with Germany and A-H. However, Italy eventually leaves because of animosity with A-H. The Central powers of the Triple Alliance were Germany, A-H, Ottomans, and Bulgaria
2. Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain. France wants Alsace-Lorraine back from 1871 during the Franco-Prussian war so it seeks allies. Russia wants the Balkan Peninsula and is against Germany, not friends. Great Britain was threatened by Germany in terms of building up its military. The fact that France and GB are in an alliance together is weird because they had clashed over land in Africa, but then with the Morccan Crisis, Germany became isolated as Bismark brings France and GB together (they share their hatred towards Germany).
With an alliance, one is more likely to fight (think students and unfair test qu's/answers).
Italy and the U.S. will join the Triple Entente later.
WWI - Immediate Cause: Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of A-H, Franz Ferdinand was murdered by the Black Hand group in Serbia. Princip was the one who shot Ferdinand. Princip had tuberculosis and so he had nothing to lose, plus he wanted to make a statement: A-H needs to get otu of Bosnia since they're not Slavic.
Black Hand: expels anyone not Slavic (Bosnia is not Slavic)
Battle of the Marne (Sep. 1914)
The GB troops land to help the Belgians (Schlieffen Plan) to knock out France. Their goal is to cut through Belgium, into northwest of France, circle around, and capture Paris. However, GB is unsuccessful because of the Germans??. The Schlieffen Plan is then modified. It is a Franco-British victory. Germans were prevented from coming around. This battle ended any hopes for a quick victory for Germany. It also set teh stage for trench warfare. Neither France nor Britain could push Germany back and so they needed a way to take cover on their flat land.
All Quiet on the Wester Front
"The Phont war" (trench warfare): it didn't seem like a war since they wouldn't do much for a while, just hang out in the trenches.
Other nations that ended the war: Central Powers
1. Turkey: 1914, to combat its traditional enemy Russia
2. Bulgaria: 1915, allied with the Central Powers (A-H and Germany) to settle old scores with Serbia (from the Balkan wars)
Other nations that ended the war: Allies
1. Japan: 1914, to acquire German territories in the Pacific
2. Italy: 1915, joins the Triple Entente (allies) with GB, France, and Russia in return for promises of Austrian territory
3. Colonies: by 1915, British colonies, as well as Canada, New Foundland support Allies (ex: India, Africa)
4. United States: 1917, because central powers aren't allowing them to trade so they go with the other side of the war, the Triple Entente
Major theaters of warfare - highlights: Eastern Front (Russia)
1. Germans pushed back Russians (not modernized)
2. 1914-1917, Russian forces suffered defeats by Germany. Russia loses more land and thus drops out of the war in 1917.
3. Russia experienced 2 revolutions and finally withdrew in 1918 accepting the harsh terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Major theaters of warfare - highlights: Southern Front (Balkan Peninsula)
1. Initilaly, the Serbians do well with A-H, but then Germany joins and Serbia loses. The Russians have a revolution and, therefore, cannot help Serbia.
2. The Germans split up the troops (western, easter, southern fronts) in order to take care of all sides of their country to resist defeat.
3. By 1917, the Central Powers had overrun most of the Balkans, though were unsuccessful in Italy.
4. In 1918, A-H withdraws from the war