What are trophic levels?
Levels of energy in an ecosystem.
How long can food chains be?
What's a food web?
A grouping of multiple food chains based on energy flow.
Why are there never more than 5 trophic levels?
There wouldn't be any energy left.
How much of each energy level is passed on?
What happens to the rest of the energy lost in a food web? How much energy is lost?
90% is lost as heat and metabolism during breakdown.
What is the 1st trophic level? What are some examples?
Producers. Grasses and bushes are examples.
What is the 2nd trophic level?
Herbivores. Rabbits, mice, llamas, deer, and grasshoppers are examples.
What is the 3rd trophic level? What are some examples?
What is the 4th trophic level? What are some examples?
What is succession?
Natural changes in an ecosystem (Growing, reproducing, aging)
What is primary succession?
Development of a new ecosystem (Rocks are the start of things)
What is secondary succession?
Establishment of an ecosystem after a natural disaster.
What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species in the same place.
What four main things determine population size?
Natality rate, mortality rate, immigration, and emigration.
What do you need for a stable population?
Births + immgration must be equal to deaths + emigration.
What are the three growth curves?
The "J Curve", "S Curve", and "Crash and Burn".
What is the "J Curve"? Where is it applied?
Charts exponential growth in a population. It can be applied to the human population.
What is the "S Curve"?
Charts carrying capacity, shows a stable population, and shows fluctuations due to seasons.
What is the "Crash and Burn" curve? Where is it applied?
Charts growth followed by the quick removal of a large portion of a population and relates to bacteria. Bacteria quickly multiply, but are quickly killed when cleaners and antibacterial treatments are introduced.
What is carrying capacity?
The maximum number of organisms an environment can support.
What is carrying capacity determined by?
What are the four "density dependent" limiting factors?
Available "necessities of life" (food, water, etc.), competition, predators, disease.
What are the two "density independent" limiting factors?
Weather (Temp., precipitation, natural disasters), amount of sunlight.
What are the three types of population distribution?
Uniform, random, and clumped.
Which type of population distribution is most common in the real world?
What is the uniform population distribution type?
Organisms cover an area equally.
What is the random population distribution type?
Organisms are separated with no apparent reason.
What is the clumped population distribution type?
Organisms gather around resources.
What is ecology?
The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
What is a habitat?
The place where an organism lives its life.
What is an ecosystem?
Includes all the populations in a community and their physical surroundings (Desert, forest, coral reef, etc.).
What is the biosphere?
The portion of Earth that supports life.
What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same place.
What are biotic factors?
All the living organisms that inhabit an environment.
What are abiotic factors?
The non-living factors of the environment.
Put the following in order based on numbers that exist in the world (least to most): communities, populations, organisms, biosphere, ecosystem.
Biosphere, ecosystem, communities, populations, organisms.
Members of the same population must compete with each other for such things as:
Food, water, mates.
Adult deer and their young must compete for the same food. But, what is unique about the competition between adult frogs and tadpoles?
Adult frogs eat insects, tadpoles eat small creatures underwater.
Autotrophs are also called what?
What do autorophs do?
Produce their own food through photosynthesis.
Heterotrophs are also called what?
What do heterotrophs do?
Eat other organisms for food.
What do herbivores eat?
What do carnivores eat?
What do omnivores eat?
Plants and meat.
How do decomposers get nutrients?
Absorption from dead organisms.
What are some decomposers?
Fungi, bacteria, protozoans.
How do scavengers get nutrients?
Feeding on dead animals.
What is an example of a scavenger?
What type of organism always is at the start of a food chain?
How long is a typical food chain?
What is a climax community?
A stable, mature community which changes very little.
What is a biome?
A large group of ecosystems that have similar abiotic factors and therefore the same type of climax community living there.
Name the biome which has an average temp of -10C and an average rainfall of 50cm.
Name the biome which has an average temp of 15C and an average rainfall of 20cm.
Name the biome which has an average temp of 25C and an average rainfall of 350cm.
Name the biome which has an average temp of 0C and an average rainfall of 150cm.
Taiga (Russian for "forest")
How many different biomes are in North America?
What biome makes up most of Japan?
What 3 biomes are found along the equator in Africa?
Tropical rainforest, grassland, desert.
On what continents can you find tropical rain forests?
Asia, Africa, South America, Australia.
What are characteristics of a marine biome?
Algae, fish, fresh/salt-water.
What are characteristics of a tundra biome?
Very cold and dry. Layer of permafrost. Wolves and caribou.
What are characteristics of a taiga biome?
Cold, needles rather than leaves, long winters.
What are characteristics of a desert biome?
Less than 25cm rain, very hot at day, very cold at night.
What are characteristics of a Savannah/grassland biome?
Dry season, cold winters, hot summers. Trees can be supported.
What are characteristics of a temperate/deciduous forest biome?
Moist, moderate temperatures, aspens.
What are characteristics of a Tropical rainforest biome?
Warm year round, lots of rain.
What is the Kingdom Protista nickname?
What type of cells are Protists?
Protists live where?
What are the animal like protists called?
What can protozoans do that algae can't?
Are protozoans producers or consumers?
Are protozoans unicellular or multicellular?
How are protozoans categorized?
By how they move.
How do protozoans of Phylum Sarcodina (Rhizopoda) move?
Via pseudopod, or "false-foot".
What is cytoplasmic streaming?
The movement of a cytoplasm in a cell.
What is a protozoan in Phylum Sarcodina (Rhizopoda)?
What disease can amoeba cause?
How is amoebic dysentary spread?
What happens to the body during amoebic dysentary?
Amoeba feed off intestines and cause cramping, vomiting, etc.
How do protozoans of Phylum Ciliophora move?
How do cilia move?
In a wave-like motion.
How do flagella move?
In a whip-like motion.
What is a protozoan from Phylum Ciliophora?
How do organisms of Phylum Zoomastigina move?
What is a protozoan from Phylum Zoomastigina?
What is a disease caused by Phylum Zoomastigina?
African sleeping sickness.
What happens to the body in African sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma enter the bloodstream, eating RBC's and destroying the nervous system.
Can you die from African sleeping sickness?
What insect transmits African sleeping sickness?
The tsetse fly.
What is unique about Phylum Sporazoa?
They don't move.
What is an example of a protozoan in Phylum Sporazoa?
What disease do plasmodium cause?
How is malaria transmitted?
Via female mosquitoes.
What does malaria do to the body?
What are the plant-like protists called?
Are algae producers or consumers?
Algae are ________, producing most of the atmosphere's O2.
How are algae categorized?
What color is Phylum Chlorophyta?
Why are Phylum Chlorophyta green?
They contain chlorophyll.
What is an algae from Phylum Chlorophyta?
Are algae from Phylum Phaeophyta uni or multicellar?
What color are algae from Phylum Phaeophyta?
What is an algae from Phylum Phaeophyta?
Are algae from Phylum Rhodophyta uni or multicellular?
What color are algae from Phylum Rhodophyta?
Why are algae from Phylum Rhodophyta red?
They contain the pigment phycobilin.
What is an algae from Phylum Rhodophyta?
Are algae from Phylum Bacilliariophyta uni or multicellular?
What group of algae are Phylum Bacilliariophyta?
What is so cool about the apperance of algae from Phylum Bacilliariophyta?
They're very geometric.
What color are algae from Phylum Bacilliariophyta?
What are the shells of algae from Phylum Bacilliariophyta made of?
Are algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates uni or multicellular?
Can algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates move?
How do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates move?
With 2 flagella they have.
What three pigments do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates have?
Chlorophyll, carotene, phycobilin.
What color are algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates?
What do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates cause every once in awhile?
The "red tide".
What is unique about algae from Phylum Euglenophyta?
They are both animal- and plant-like.
What pigment do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates have?
What mode of transportation do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates use?
What do algae from Phylum Dinoflagellates use to aid in photosynthesis?
a "red eye spot".
What do "red eye spots" do?
Find light for photosynthesis.