Chapter 11: The North (1790-1860)

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34 terms · Ms. Cavanagh's 8th Grade American History Class Muirlands Middle School

Lowell girls

Young, unmarried women working in water-powered textile mills in Massachusetts. These women wanted the chance to earn money instead of working on the family farm. Lowell girls typically worked in the mills for 4 years.

Sarah G. Bagley

A Lowell girl who fought to bring the 10-hour working day of public employees to private business employees.

steamboat

A boat that is powered by a steam engine. They became popular in the U.S. in the early 1800s because they were well suited for river travel and could move upstream without wind power.

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

A Supreme Court case about interstate commerce (trade between states)

Tom Thumb

A small but powerful locomotive built by Peter Cooper in 1830. It was the first American-built steam locomotive and is credited with bringing "railroad fever" to the U.S.

textile

A type of cloth or woven fabric.

craftspeople

People who make goods by hand. Many of them lost their jobs with the mass production of manufactured goods during the Industrial Revolution.

Industrial Revolution

A period of rapid growth in using machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s (1750s-1760s) in Great Britain.

textile industry

An industry that produces cloth items and was the first industry to use machines for manufacturing

Transportation Revolution

A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation. Steel, coal, and logging industries expanded as a direct result of this period of growth.

urban hub

Cities that grew in size and stature (importance) as a result of the Transportation Revolution.

wood

During the first years of the Transportation Revolution, this natural resource was the main source of fuel for trains and steamboats.

coal

As faster locomotives (trains) were built during the Transportation Revolution, this natural resource replaced wood as the main source of fuel because it was cheaper than wood and produced more energy.

Telegraph

A device that could send information over wires very quickly and across great distances. Many Americans did not believe that it actually worked until it was used in 1844 to send the news to Washington, D.C. that Polk had been chosen as the Democratic candidate for president.

Samuel F.B. Morse

The American man who invented the single-wire telegraph in 1832

Morse Code

A system of dots and dashes that represent each letter of the alphabet. This code is used to send messages using a telegraph.

The Spinning Jenny

A small, inexpensive machine invented by James Hargreaves that revolutionized the manufacture of cloth by reducing the amount of time needed to produce yarn (thread)

3 ways to promote (publicize) new inventions

1. Provide free repairs
2. Let customers buy items on credit
3. Give public demonstrations

Alexis de Tocqueville

A French political thinker and historian who wrote the book "Democracy in America." He wrote that Americans were always looking for ways to make life "more comfortable and convenient."

strike

A refusal to work until employers meet demands.

trade unions

Groups of workers that tried to their improve pay and working conditions, usually through use of strikes or petitions

Francis Cabot Lowell

The businessman who created the "Lowell system," which completely changed the textile industry in New England.

New England

A region in the northeastern corner of the United States, consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Robert Fulton

In 1807 this man designed the "Clermont," the first full-sized commercial steamboat in the United States

Rhode Island System

Samuel Slater's strategy of hiring entire families to work in his mills and then dividing the factory work into simple tasks. Families lived in boardinghouses near the mills.

boardinghouse

A private house that provides accommodations (rooms to live in) and meals for paying guests

Samuel Slater

A British mechanic who immigrated to the U.S. after memorizing the designs of textile mill machines. He started the first textile mill in the U.S. and later developed the Rhode Island System.

Eli Whitney

An American inventor who developed the idea of using interchangeable parts to help mass produce guns for the U.S. government.

interchangeable parts

Parts of a machine that are identical

mass production

The process of making large quantities (numbers) of a product quickly and cheaply

War of 1812

A war fought between the U.S. and Great Britain that lasted from 1812 to 1815. During the war, British ships prevented goods or people from entering or leaving eastern seaports in the U.S. This lead to a shortage of manufactured goods in the U.S. in 1812 and, soon after, to an increase in American manufacturing as the U.S. rushed to produce for itself goods that it had once bought from Britain.

Richard Arkwright

British inventor who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. In 1769 he invented the water frame.

water frame

A machine invented by Richard Arkwright, that could produce dozens of cotton threads at the same time. It lowered the cost of cotton cloth and increased the speed of textile production.

Peter Cooper

An American inventor who designed and built the first steam locomotive in the United States, which he named "Tom Thumb."

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