all the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people
to simplify things further we organize concepts into ____.
a mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category
found memory shifts after showing belgian students ethnically mixed faces.
a step by step procedure that guarantees a solution
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions
Jognny Appleton displayed insight when he figured out how to save a young robin that had fallen into a narrow 30 inch deep hole in a cement block wall. Johnny's solution was to slowly pour sand in the hole.
Mark Jung-Beeman, Johm Kounious, and Edward Bowden
identified brain activity associated with sudden flashes of insight. The sudden insight showed a burst of activity in the right temporal lobe.
a tendancy to search for info that confirms one's preconceptions
the inability to swee a jproblem from a fresh perspective is a true impediment to problem solving
refers to our tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has worked for us previously
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; and impediment to problem solving
The representative heuristic
the liklihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent info.
The Availability Heuristic
estimating the liklihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind we presume such events are common.
a tendancy to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements
Kahneman and Tversky
ran a study over confidence: they asked people to answer questions with a wide enough range to include the actual answer. Most answered incorrect but were certain they were correct
the way an issue is posed; how an issure is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
the tendancy for one's pre existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or vice versa
The Belief Perseverance phenomenon
our tendancy to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word. combos of two or more phonemes
a sustem of rules in a given language that enables us to communicate with and undertstand others
the set of rules we sue to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and even sentences.
refers to the rused we use to order words into sentences
babies' ability to comprehend speech
begins at about 4 months of age, the stage of speech develpment in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the house hold language
the stage in speech development from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
early speach stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" usually mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxillary words.
Skinner: Operant Learning/Nature
believed that we can explain language development with familiar learning principals, such as association; imitation; and reinforcement
Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar/Nurture
children acquire untaught words and grammar at a rate of extraordinary to be explained soley by learning principles
exposed 8 month old infants to a computer voice speaking an unproken, monotone string of nonsense syllables. The infants were able to recognize 3 syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly
childhood is the period for mastering language
Jaqueline Johnson and Elissa Newport
tested Korean and Chinese Imigrants on an english grammar test, requiring them to ID each of 276 sentences is gramatically correct or incorrect. Those who immigrated as children performed better.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Michael Ross, Elaine Xun, and Anne Wilson
invited china born, bilingual students to describe themselves in english or Chinese. English expressed mostly positive self-statements and moods. Chinese reported more agreement with values and roughly equal positive and negative self-statements and moods
children who learn o inhibit one language while using their other language are also better able to inhibit their attention to irrelevant info.
had half a group throw 24 darts and the other half practice mentally and then had them all throw 24 darts. The ones who practiced mentally performed better.
observed that chimps display animal cognition when Sultan the chimp solved a basic problem