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asphyxia

absence of respiratory ventilation; suffication

asthma

condition of the lungs characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs producing symptoms wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing; caused by the local release of factors during an allergic response

atelectasis

absence of gas in the lungs due to a failure of alveolar expansion; also called collapsed lung

bronchiectasis

dilation of the bronchi, which may result when chronic inflammation destroys the smooth muscle in the bronchial walls

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi; the acute form is often due to viral or bacterial infection, while the chronic form is often due to air pollution or smoking and is part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

bronchogenic carcinoma

cancer that originates in the bronchi

bronchopneumonia

acute inflammation of the smaller bronchial tubes, bronchioles, and alveoli

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

a group of disorders (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and bronchospasm) associated with the obstruction of the bronchial airflow; usually a result of inhaling tobacco for many years

coccidioidomycosis or valley fever

fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract and lungs that often spreads to other organs; caused by inhaling dust that contains spores of Coccidiodes immunitis

cor pulmonale

disease of the heart that is caused by chronic lung disease, such as emphysema;

coryza

common viral head cold

croup

disease of infants and young children; caused by acute obstruction of the larynx and characterized by a hoarse cough

cystic fibrosis (CF)

hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract and elsewhere

deviated septum

the nasal septum that devides the two nasal cavities is not median, creating one cavity that is larger that the other

diaphragmatocele (diaphragmatic hernia)

protrusion of the stomach and/or intestine through the diaphragm; can interfere with breathing

emphysema

chronic lung disease characterized by enlarged alveoli and damaged respiratory membrane; symptoms include apnea, a barrel chest due to labored breathing, and gradual deterioration due to chronic hypoxemia

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis; often results from bacterial infection and may lead to airway obstruction, especially among children

insomnia

inability to sleep

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

laryngotracheobronchitis

chronic inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; the acute form is called croup

legionellosis

form of pnemonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumonphilia

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

obstructive sleep apnea or OSA

collapse of the pharynx during sleep; results in airway obstruction and absence of breathing

pansinusitis

inflammation of all paranasal sinuses on one or both sides of the face

pertussis or whooping cough

acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; produces spasmodic coughing. Noise is caused when the larynx spasms

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

pleural effusion

escape of fluid into the pleural cavity during inflammation; results in compression of the underlying part of the affected lung

pleuritis or pleurisy

inflammation of the pleurae

pneumatocele or pneumocele

hernia of the lung, in which the lung protrudes through an opening in the chest

pneumoconiosis

inflammation of the lungs caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles; leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the alveoli that reduces their ability to stretch within incoming air; includes asbestosis and silicosis caused by fine silicon-dust inhalation

pneumoncystis carinii pneumonia or PCP

pneumonia caused by fungus P. carinii; a common opportunistic disease in patients with AIDS

pneumonia

inflammation of soft lung tissue (excluding the bronchi) in which the alveoli become filled with fluids; caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infection

pneumonitis

inflammation of the lungs, independent of a particular cause

pneumothorax

presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity due to a perforation, causing the lung to collapse

pulmonary edema

accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and bronchioles

pulmonary embolism or PE

blockage in the pulmonary circulation caused by a moving blood clot

pulmonary neoplasm

tumor of the lung

pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which includes tubercle formation, inflammation and necrotic lesions

pyothorax or empyema

a condition of pus in the pleural cavity

respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS

respiratory failure characterized by atelectasis; this condition occurs in two forms:
= neonatal respiratory distress syndrome- caused by insufficient surfactant (it enables alveoli to be reopened after respiration)
=adult or acute respiratory distress syndrome- that affects adults and ise caused by severe lung infections or injury

rhinitis

inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane

rhinomycosis

fungal infection of the nasal mucous

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

a severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and atelectasis

sinusitis

inflammation of the sinus mucous membranes

tonsillitis

inflammation of a tonsil, usually a palatine tonsil; an adenoid is a pharyngeal tonsil that is subject to inflammation

tracheitis

inflammation of the trachea

tracheostenosis

narrowing of the trachea

upper respiratory infection

infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea) usually the result of a virus

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