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United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

Satellite Nations

Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control

Iron Curtain

an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy

Cold War

The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. (831)

Containment

a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Marshal Plan

George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe

Berlin Airlift

Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Warsaw Pact

The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (p. 836)

Collective Security

a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all

Loyalty Program

1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists

Fall of China

After WWII, the USSR spreads into Asia and supports Mao Zedong, who takes over China after overthrowing Jiang Jieshi (he flees to Taiwan). China then becomes a communist nation. It was seen as a defeat to the US and its allies (US refuses to recognize Beijing).

HUAC

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda

Blacklisting

list of people suspected to be communists, people on the list were prevented from finding work

McCarthyism

In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a sensational campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954. McCarthyism became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.

38th Parallel

Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, during the Cold War.

Korean War

the cold war conflict in which UN soliders fought to defend South Korea from takeover by Communist North Korea, ending a stalemate in 1953

Military-industrial complex

Eisenhower's term for the close ties between the defense industry and the Pentagon that might influence government policy.

Brinkmanship

A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests

Sputnik

First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

U-2 Incident

The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

Cuban Missile Crisis

an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.

Berlin Wall

A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.

Peace Corps

volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty

Containment

American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.

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