Inversion of values
The process by which slave morality came to dominate rather than master morality.
Will to power
The basic, natural drive - fundamental to all living things - to dominate & impose oneself on others.
The use of the weak by the powerful; described by Nietzsche as a "primordial fact" & "natural."
The originally superior values of the aristocratic, ruling class subsequently diminished in status by the inversion of values.
A philosopher mocked for claiming to have 'discovered' (rather than invented for his own purpose) various moral & epistemological 'truths' such as the categorical imperative & synthetic a priori propositions.
A disease of dogmatism that has infected higher minds for centuries with a taste for metaphysical absolutes e.g. the Form of the Good as a moral absolute.
Giving an abstract concept a name & then treating it as though it were a concrete, tangible object.
The ladder of sacrifice
A metaphorical picture of Christianity. It has "many rungs" but Nietzsche concentrates on three of them. Its inexorable logical progression eventually leads to the paradoxical sacrifice of God Himself for "nothingness" i.e. nihilism.
The 2nd stage of morality, linked to Christian values & the philosophy of Kant, that inverts moral thinking by focusing on motivation rather than outcomes.
The 1st stage of morality whereby an action was considered good if the outcome was that which was originally desired.
A projected future state which sees morality revert to something like master morality by going "beyond good & evil."
Synthetic a priori
An attempt by Kant, mocked by Nietzsche, to provide a basis for epistemological truth.
A physicist credited by Nietzsche with instigating a move away from atomism towards a view of the universe as an interplay of competing forces.
A pervasive error, taking many forms, in which the world is divided up into small, separate, indivisible particles; philosophy & language reflect this basic assumption/error. Belief in 'the soul' is a particular example.
Stands for a view of the world emphasising an ordered, considered, moderate, measured, controlled, rational approach; opposite to Dionysian.
The French Revolution
A historical event described by Nietzsche as a "gruesome...farce" & a "text [that] disappeared beneath the interpretation". Also described as the last great slave revolt & a final step in the inversion of values.
Rather than dogmastists, the new philosophers will be this, going beyond socially imposed limits.
An approach employed by Nietzsche against philosophers, usually considered fallacious, that involves attacking the person behind the argument rather than the reasoning.
Nietzsche accuses philosophers of unwittingly producing these; that is, merely revealing their own inner motivations & needs through their philosophical ideas.
Bewitchment of language
Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of not acknowledging or understanding the seductive (quasi-magical) power of "habits of grammar" over our perception.
Stands for primary, instinctive, creative, life-enhancing passion & the drive to embrace experience; in opposition to the Apollonian & related to "eternal recurrence".
Denotes a fixed & unshakeable belief in an absolute truth based on unexplored or unseen assumptions; past philosophers could never understand themselves because dogmatic assumptions & prejudices blinded them.
Faith in antithetical values
An unchallenged belief of "metaphysicians" in such binary opposites as 'truth' & 'untruth;' e.g. Kant's noumenon & phenomenon; Plato's Forms & particular things.
A "charmingly refutable" belief based on our pleasure at feeling in command of our actions rather than acknowledging the truth of competing, unconscious drives.
"Everything profound" loves them; they allow the free spirit to hide his true nature from common people who would misunderstand him & react with fear & bewilderment.
"A privilege of the strong;" a quality needed by the free spirit who cannot return to society.
The "new philosopher" will be this, & thus create new values, go beyond morality, reject dogmatic assumptions, & be more than merely a critic or scholar but an "attempter".
The idea that there can be no absolute truths because everything is seen from a particular point of view so is relative to this.
The moral code of common people born from a need to follow & feel secure among people who share one's values; an aspect of the inversion of values.
A huge influence on Nietzsche with his idea of "will to life" but criticised in BGE for attempting to find a rational basis for universal morality & for the inconsistency between this & his supposed "pessimism" - & he played the flute...
Criticised for the circularity inherent in his subjective idealism i.e. if "there are only minds & their ideas" is the mind itself an idea?
Greek philosopher mocked for his "doctrine of the mean" which suggests that virtue is served by taking a moderate path between extremes of excess & deficiency.
A central idea of Kant's, related to the noumenal, that there is an ultimate truth about things underpinning mere appearances.
A consequentialist ethical system, devised by Bentham & developed by Mill, that suggests moral action consists of increasing happiness for the majority of people. Criticised by Nietzsche for its contradictory "end jusifies the means" morality & for its emphasis on the happiness of 'the majority' rather than "higher men".
The "Queen of Sciences" - Nietzsche prefers to use this to analyse motives & needs rather than to assess the truth-claims of philosophers; which are ultimately irrelevant.
"Platonism for the masses" - a religion built on "slave morality" & an "inversion' of values" that promotes weakness, is life-denying, & emphasises intentions rather than outcomes. It demands that one "sacrifice" one's better instincts as exemplified by the impressive self-denial of the saint.
The great danger. Loss of faith & certainty that comes when scientific materialism replaces religon may lead to "belief in nothing." Only if the higher types of men become godlike 'supermen' can it be avoided.
Accused, in his 'Cogito', of exemplifying certain philosopical prejudices such as the "immediate certainty" of his existence as a "thinking thing." Nietzsche's linguistic analysis finds a number of hidden assumptions & beliefs upon which his claim is actually based.
A mathematician whose faith was described as a "protracted suicide of reason" after he turned his back on rational thought following a religious conversion experience.
Darwin's big idea, ultimately rejected by Nietzsche as a "superfluous teleological principle" because it emphasises "survival of the fittest" where "will to power" is a more fundamental drive for organic life.
Frederick the Great
An embodiment of the best kind of scepticism; the "scepticism of audacious manliness".
Nietzsche's encapsulation of the life-affirming nature of his own approach is that one must come to the point where one would be content to repeat any moment of one's life over & over.
A type of (arguably) invalid argument used by Nietzsche whereby a view is said to be incorrect on the basis of its orgins even though this does not necessarily invalidate the belief itself e.g. Nietzsche's claim that God is projection based on need; even if true, this does not prove God's non-existence. He arguably makes this error in several places.
In his book Straw Dogs he accuses Nietzsche of dishonestly clinging to a disguised Christian worldview by promoting the utopian hope of mankind's future perfectability
In his A History of Western Philosophy he decribed Nietzsche's conception of the ubermensch as a "grand solipsism".
She suggests that it is a bizarre philosophy that concludes that the problem with the world as it is now that it contains too much love & compassion.
A doctrine, most associated with Auguste Comte, that emphasises empiricism & scientific methods. Criticised by Nietzsche as one of the life-denying, "modern ideas" that leads to nihilism via the suffocatingly dull belief that truth can be uncovered by ever more painstaking, scientific, empirical analysis.
The prejudice thesis
The claim that all philosophies, when properly analysed, are a kind of biography in which the philosopher reveals his hidden prejudices; his need for certainty & truth.
Thinkers who confine themselves to collecting & arranging 'common' ideas but who are ill-equipped for the kind of 'going beyond' attempted by higher types, & thus resentful of them; their approach can be useful for the new philosopher however.
They come in two forms: spidery ones & audaciously manly ones.
The madman in the marketplace
The figure in The Gay Science who announces the death of God: "God is dead, and we have killed him." He claims that we have yet to grasp the terrible implications of this deed & that those who can must become godlike in order to be worthy of it.
In the final chapter of his After Virtue he asks whether "Nietzsche or Aristotle" offers the best version of morality-after-the-death-of-God & plumps for Aristotle on the basis that he gives a better narrative account of human intellectual & moral development. Nietzsche himself has shown that it is the power of the narrative rather than its 'truth' that counts, & Aristotelian virtue theory has adapted & thrived over several centuries.
Will to ignorance
Denotes the basic drive to distort reality in order to be able to cope with it - linked to the question "why not rather falsehood?"
Will to truth
A prejudice of past philosophers linked to the bogus claim that there is a an objective, absolute noumenal realm or realm of Forms that exists separate from human need for such things. Philosophers claim to be seeking it, Nietzsche wants to ask why they make this claim.
Will to knowledge
The desire to control the world by analysing, categorising, & classifying experience.
An alternative to Darwinist evolutionary theory, linked to Nietzsche's belief in "breeding," that aristocratic traits are passed on down the generations & inherited. There seems little evidence for such a claim, so it is perhaps one of the areas in which Nietzsche is most open to criticism.
A belief in selective breeding, embraced by the Nazis in their master race project, that arguably has links to Nietzsche's Lamarckian tendencies & beliefs in an aristocratic caste & "order of rank".
The values of the aristocratic class, linked to master morality, that derive from a high rank of soul & a sense of innate superiority.
Kantian term for the world existing beyond the phenomenal realm & the relativity of human perspective - denied by Nietzsche who sees it as symptomatic of a need for simplified certainty & truth.
The free spirit
He is part sceptic, part critic, part scholar, but more than the sum of all of these because he avoids dogmatic certainties & is prepared to go "beyond good & evil" & explore uncharted territory. He thus creates new values from his independence & courage alone. He is also known as the New Philosopher.
The History of an Error
...or "how the true world became a fable". A passage from The Twilight of the Idols which gives a six-stage account of the replacement of the 'real' world with an 'ideal' world by Platonism, Christianity, Kantianism, Positivism finishing with Nietzsche's "re-valuation of all values."
The 'overman' or 'free spirit' who lives beyond conventional morality & beyond 'Man'. In becoming a god-like being he is able to create his own values & thus avoid plummeting into the nihilistic abyss.
The notion of "the survival of the fittest" deriving from the Herbert Spencer's (1820 - 1903) development of the theory of natural selection & application of it to human society. Nietzsche's own ideas are often likened to this but are arguably similar to Lamarckism.
The perverse, life-denying attitude of religious people, especially the saint, who suppress their strongest impulses & desires for the sake of morality. A term developed by Freud to designate religion as symptomatic of psychological disease reflecting unhealthy, subconscious desires.