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Reproduction

formation of new individuals sexually or asexually; no gametes involved

Asexual reproduction

process where one parent reproduces by itself;

Sexual reproduction

two parents give rise to offspring that have a unique combination of genetic material;two gametes involved

Types of Asexual reproduction

Binary Fission, Budding, Spore formation

Binary Fission

a parent cell divides into two new daughter cells the same size as the parent with the same kind and quantity of DNA.

Binary fission organisms

protozoans, bacteria, and some algae

Budding

an outgrowth on a yeast cell grows and separates from the parent cell

hydra

reproduce by budding

Spore formation

a cell undergoes a series of cell divisions inside its own cell wall. Each new cell produces a thick wall of its own, and the old cell wall becomes a spore case holding small thick-walled cells, the spores. These grow into new individuals

Puberty

period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional. Secondary sex characteristics develop; LSH and FH levels are increased.

males secondary sex characteristics

growth of facial and body hair, increase in body size, and deepening of the voice

females secondary sex characteristics

development of the reproductive system, widening of the hips, and development of the breasts.

Gonads

produce gametes (sperm and eggs) and secrete sex hormones testis and ovary

male reproductive structures

testes, the epididymis, the vas deferens, the urethra, and the penis. they produce and deliver sperm.

testes

one to three degrees lower than the internal body temperature for proper sperm development

sperm

produced in the seminiferous tubules within the testes

spermatogenesis

process that results in sperm cell formation

sperm cells

male gametes; has a head, a middle piece, and a tail (flagellum)

epididymis

site where the sperm cells are stored and matured

seminal fluid

a nutrient-rich fluid

semen

combination of sperm and seminal fluid

ejaculation

contractions of the smooth muscles lining the glands in the reproductive tract causes sperm cells to be ejected from the penis

female reproductive structures

ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina. In addition to producing eggs,

female reproductive system

produces eggs; prepares the body to nourish a developing embryo

primary follicles

Clusters of cells surrounding a single egg

FSH

stimulates a follicle to grow and mature each month

path of the egg

Fallopian tubes to the uterus

four stages of the menstrual cycle

Follicular phase, Ovulation, Luteal phase, Menstruation

menstrual cycle

an egg develops and is released from an ovary, if the egg is not fertilized it is discharged along with the lining of the uterus

Follicular phase

follicle develops

Ovulation

mature egg is released from ovary into the oviduct

Luteal phase

egg travels through the Fallopian Tubes

Menstruation

lining of the uterus is shed and is discharged through the vagina (lasts on the average of 3-7 days)

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