Exam 2 Alcohol and Drug

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1) Alcoholism can be inherited, and other factors such as parenting, environment, and psychological issues are also involved

True

2) The average amount of genetic material siblings share is

50%

3) The use of twins in genetic studies is commonplace. In alcohol research we have found that monozygotic twins have a concordance rate of alcoholism that is

40% to 60% is genetics

4) Dizygotic (DZ) twins, means that the twins

Came from two eggs

5) The instructor stated that 2 human parents can have their DNA come together in _________

...

different combination's, meaning that they could literally have _________ offspring that are genetically different from each other.

ten million combination's', ten million combination's

6) People tend to drink more alcohol who

have the gentics, and have high environmental stress

7) Studies have proven that the female offspring of alcoholic parents

studies are inconclusive

8) Males tend to become alcoholic at the rate of __40 to 60%__ if one parent is alcoholic

40 to 60%

9) We say that alcoholism is about __40 to 60_ % environmental and about ___4 to 60__% genes

40 to 60% for both

10) In research tables of data, the "n" stands for

number

11) A confound in research is

a nuisance variable that alters your findings, something you weren't expecting or didn't look for.

12) The effect of marriage on the drinking behavior of female twins does the following

Reduces impact on genetic contribution

13) In adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents as compared to adoptees with biologic parents without alcoholism, the following effect on marital trouble (numeric change) occurs [in other words, adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents experience the issue at the rate below]

It Doubles

14) In adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents as compared to adoptees with biologic parents without alcoholism, the following effect on job trouble (numeric change) occurs [in other words, adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents experience the issue at the rate below]

25x

15) In adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents as compared to adoptees with biologic parents without alcoholism, the following effect on drinking treatment (numeric change) occurs [in other words, adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents experience the issue at the rate below]

goes up by 16x

16) In adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents as compared to adoptees with biologic parents without alcoholism, the following effect on lifetime alcoholism rates (numeric change) occurs [in other words, adoptees with biologic alcoholic parents experience the issue at the rate below]

It Triples the risk (3x)

17) Milder alcohol problems in men and women are best predicted by which factors

Environment

18) Alcoholics may have a genetically transmitted faulty enzyme which impairs the metabolism of alcohol (t or f)

True impairs the metabolism

19) Alcoholics may have a genetically induced _______________ response to alcohol, which may make them more susceptible to heavier drinking habits.

Lower

20) Some inherited aspects of _________________ functioning (brain) may be different in alcoholics.

Cognitive

21) People of ___________________ descent have flushing syndrome which leads to____________ rates of abstinence among this group.

Asian, Higher rates of abstinence

22) Only ____ percent of __________ alcoholics have the flushing response, indicating that this one factor can reduce alcohol dependence risk.

2%, Asian

23) The sons of alcoholics tend to have a _________________ reaction to alcohol than males who did not have an alcoholic parent.

Lower reaction

24) Having inherited the genetics for alcohol dependence risk, male children of alcoholics will get earlier and more severe warning signs of intoxication than make children of non-alcoholics.(t or f)

False, male

25) Because there is basis to state that alcoholism is a disease, clients are_________responsible for treating their disease

fully

Alcohol and Drug Research studies tend to be ____________ in nature when working with human subjects

Observational

The phrase correlation does not equal causation means

just because 2 things are correlated doesn't mean it causes the other

Per capita consumption of alcohol in the United States is based on sampling adults aged 14 and over. From these studies we can state that the average consumption in the United States currently is about

2.5 gallons a year

People tend to drink ______________ alcohol when there is national stress such as war or recession

More

The country with the lowest per capital consumption of alcohol according to your text in 1990 was

Turkey

The country with the highest per capital consumption of alcohol according to your text in 1990 was

France

When reading research tables, one should not only note the highest and lowest numbers in the tables, but

why these numbers are high and low

Per capita consumption of alcohol varies by region in the United States. Reasons for these differences might include

Religous background, cultural context

People surveyed on alcohol use tend to underreport their use of alcohol by about

50%

An abstainer is defined in the text as consuming less than _____ drinks per year

12

A light drinker is defined in the text as consuming less than ______ drinks per week

Less than 3 a week

Heavy drinkers are defined as consuming ______ or more drinks per week

14 per week

What percentage of Americans are considered non-drinkers, approximately?

50% are considered non drinkers

Alcohol consumption is implicated in about how many deaths per year in the United States?

400,000

Alcohol is not a factor in accidental deaths typically. (t or f)

False, it is a big factor

The number of suicide deaths associated with alcohol use in the United States is at least 36%. (t or f)

True, it is associated with alcohol

Since the drinking age went from 19 to 21 in most states in 1984 we can state for certain that

increased

The increased drinking age is the only factor in the reduction of the number of alcohol related highway deaths in those under the age of 21 (t or f)

False, it's not the only factor

More people die at this time of the month from alcohol related problems than any other time in the United States

At the beginning because they get their pay checks

The majority of alcohol clients have a co-occurring or mental health disorder (t or f)

True, most of them at least 50%

When an alcohol client has a co-occurring or mental health disorder along with the alcohol problem, the proper treatment is

Treat both at the same time

Around what percentage of those who consume alcohol will develop a problem with alcohol in their lifetime?

20%, 1 out of 5 people will have a problem

Those of Asian descent tend to have fewer alcohol problems because of

Flushing Symptom

Women are more likely to have severe alcohol problems than men (t or f)

False, women are not more likely than men

The age group with the highest level of alcohol problems in the United States according to your text is

18 to 29

Different ethnic groups have different addiction problems and different levels of alcohol problems (t or f)

True, diff. ethnic groups have diff. addiction problems

Alcohol use problems that become lifetime issues usually start before (age/grade)

age 15 / 8th grade

Non-binge drinkers in college tend to have ____________ problems than binge drinkers in college

Non-binge drinkers have less problems

Longitudinal study means that the method used:

Followed for a long period

A historical confound means that:

People may be different because of conditions they lived in

Attrition in a study means that:

People drop out

People tend to drink _______________ at age 31 than they did at age 18.

drink less

According to the research, the grade(s) in which 21.7 %, or the largest number of people began drinking is:

7th and 8th grade

Those who drank the greatest amount of alcohol at a young age (say 16) were also those that were most likely to be the heaviest drinkers in late adolescence (say age 23) (t or f)

True the earlier you start the more likely you will be a heavy drinker

Good adjustment and good coping skills lead to increased social skills which actually increase the risk of heavy drinking later in life (t or f)

False

Anti-social behavior (being mean to other children, parents and animals) is implicated in adult alcoholism (t or f).

True

Which set of traits in adolescence is shown to be a risk factor in alcoholism later in life:

all of the above

Mothers of frequent users of alcohol and abstainers (the two extremes) were shown to be the following:

tend to be cold and unresponsive and under protective (negligent)

Married males have lower alcohol consumption rates and lower incidents of alcohol problems overall than single males (t or f).

Married men have lower alcohol consumption rates so this is true

The stability of drinking patterns has been shown to be the most consistent in this age group of males:

Middle aged males, because of careers

Subjects of Italian descent have the highest rate of alcoholism, and subjects of Irish descent have the lowest rate of alcoholism (t or f).

False, Irish have the highest rate of alcoholism

Intense conflict in the home has the following impact on alcoholism in children:

Conflict will increase alcoholism

College abusers of alcohol tend to have the following pattern of drinking if they
continue use:

People drink less and less-Swing in and out of problematic drinking

The majority of people that get sober report that they did it in this manner:

Stopping on their own

The majority of alcoholics have a(n) ________________pattern of drinking over
their adult (after age 14) lifetimes:

unstable pattern of drinking

Married alcoholic men have a death rate of _______ times the rate of married nonalcoholic
men.

3.64 x more

As alcohol dependence progresses, one hallmark is increasing
__________________. (note this is in the table on page 128 and is covered in lecture... I
will not respond to questions about this question, it is one you will have to find)

attempts of sobriety

There is a high remission of alcohol problems in older men. (t or f)

True, older men do have a high remission of alcohol problems

What percentage of people remitted without professional treatment:

43.3%

About ________ % of alcoholics safely return to controlled drinking.

10%

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