ring of fire
the zone of earthquakes and volcanoes surrounding the Pacific-Ocean
melted rock issuing from a volcano
2.liquid or molten rock deep in the earth, which on cooling solidifies to produce igneous rock
deadly fluidized masses of rock fragments and gases that move at high speeds from a volcanic eruption in response to gravity.
an inter-plate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath another. these earthquakes are among the world's largest , with moment magnitudes that can exceed 9.0.
a fracture in the Earth's crust along which movement has occurred.
the gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body, especially the one surrounding the earth, and retained by the celestial body's gravitational field.
is a highly fossiliferous limestone, composed of a number of fossilized organisms such as brachiopods, bryozoans, crinoids, sponges, corals and mollusks
one of the three major rock types and are basically rocks that solidified from magma
the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock
the rigid plasticlike outermost shell of a rocky planet. It comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
The region where oceanic plates sink down into the asthenosphere.
Circular currents in the mantle caused by the magma being heated by the core off the Earth.
these spreading boundaries are found where two plates are moving away from each other
Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions
San Andreas fault
a huge crack that runs through most of California that separates the North American and Pacific plates
taken up by living things while they are alive--when an organism dies, it decays to form nitrogen 14.used to date fossils younger than 60,000 years. half life=5370 years.
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
a geologist who uses physical principles to study the properties of the earth
1.A large-amplitude compression wave, as that produced by an explosion or by supersonic motion of a body in a medium.
an earthquake in which the propagation of the rupture along the fault surface occurs at speeds in excess of the seismic shear wave velocity. This causes a form of sonic boom to occur
Mount Saint Helens
an active volcano in the Cascade Range in southwestern Washington that suddenly erupted in 1980 that was inactive circa 130 years.
One that is erupting or shows signs that it may erupt in the near future.
A volcano that has not erupted for thousands of years and probably will not erupt again.
A volcano that has not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again one day.
A steep, sloping volcano made of layers of ash and lava that builds up from past eruptions. It takes this shape.
A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava
an opening or crack in the earth's surface through which lava flows.
Nevado del Ruiz
1985, Colombia, Armero. The plinian eruption released a huge lahar flow that buried Armero. People didn't react, which resulted in a lot of deaths.
1883 volcano whose explosion put so much dust into the earth's atmosphere that the sunsets appeared green and the moon appeared blue around the world for almost 2 years.
is created where one plate moves under another.
example of convergent boundary
example of folded mountain range similar to those in Greenland and western Europe.
fossil plant that helps support the theory of continental drift
Lived in S. America and S. Africa / freshwater reptile / used to prove continental drift
ancient Roman city in southern Italy. It was buried by volcanic ash during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in ad 79, and has since been partly excavated due to preserved buildings and art.