Principal Mammalian Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones

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calcitonin

thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone

melatonin

hormone secreted by the pineal gland

Antidiuretic hormone(ADH).

Conserves water by stimulating its reabsorption from urine. (Kidneys)

Oxytocin (OT)

Stimulates contraction (uterus)

cortisol

an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism

Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates secretion of adrenal cortical hormones such as cortisol.

Melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH)

Stimulates color change in reptiles and amphibians; various functions in mammals.

(GH)

Stimulates growth by promoting bone growth, protein synthesis, and fat break down.

Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates milk production.

Thyroid- Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

stimulates thyroxine secretion.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Stimulates ovulation stimulates testosterone in males.

FSH

Stimulates spermatogeneiss in males; stimulates development of ovaries in females.

parathyroid hormone

hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands

throxine

increases glucose in blood by instestines

insulin

hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas

glucagon

a hormone secreted by the pancreas

glucocorticoids

Cortisol and Cortisone are types of these hormones, produced in the Adrenal cortex, which increase blood glucose levels through stimulation of gluconeogenesis and the decrease of protein synthesis. They also reduce the body's immunological and inflammatory responses.

epinephrine

a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)

prostaglandins

A group of bioactive, hormone-like chemicals derived from fatty acids that have a wide variety of biological effects including roles in inflammation, platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle dilation and constriction, cell growth, protection of from acid in the stomach, and many more.

aldosterone

"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure

voltage gated channels

gated channel that depends on a change in electrical potential on the cell membrane

synapse

the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle

axon

long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron

dendrite

short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron

central nervous system

the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord

salutatory conduction

The mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse in a myelinated nerve fibre; actually travels by leaping through the nodes of Ranvier in a myelinated fibre; thus, the local circuits occur only at the nodes where action potential is boosted to the same height by ionic mechanisms

schwann cells

Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.

oligodendrocytes cells

type of glia cells; makes the myelin sheath in CNS

nodes of ranvier

small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons

white matter

whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths

grey matter

greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers

neuroglia

sustentacular tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the central nervous system

sodium potassium pump

actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in

NMJ

synapse between motor neuron and myofiber

negative feedback system

Reverses a change in a controlled condition. e.g. regulation of (high) blood pressure.

tetanus

a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses

recruitment

an increase in the number of motor units being activated

power stroke

Pull thin filament across thick filament

hypertrophy

abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ

sacromere

Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell

sarin gas

Like other nerve agents, sarin attacks the nervous system of a living organism. It is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor.

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