why did africans come to america?
slaves are needed for sugar plantations in the west indies
where can sugar not be grown?
where do english farmers and their slaves migrate to?
why did bacons rebellions cause a greater need for slaves?
poor white farmers dont want their indentured servants taking their jobs after they are freed
what was the name of the trip from the west coast of africa to america?
the middle passage
is life as a slave worse or better in the deep south?
why was slavery bad in the deep south?
because the people used life-draining labor, the climate was very hot and the plantations were very scattered which caused lonliness
what was the slavery in the upper south like?
the climate was better, the plantations were less scattered, natural reproduction and tobacco was less physically demanding
what happens as the industry increases?
slavery becomes obsolete in the north
when is slavery abolished in the noth?
when was the cotton gin invented?
who invented the cotton gin?
slavery goes from being a necessary evil to a ______
who is among the first anti-slavery advocates?
what did the American Colonization Society do?
they attempted to rid the fear of slave rebellions, competition and the belief in white supremacy
what is 'The Liberator'?
a newspaper written by W.L Garrison
what is the American Anti-Slavery Society?
the first national organization for abolition
what newspaper did douglass write and what did it promote?
the North Star promoted abolition
what did sojourner truth do?
she traveled throughout the north promoting abolition
what was harriet tubman responsible for?
the underground railroad
what did the grimke sisters do?
they believed "slavery is a crime against God and man"
what did nat turner do?
he led the slave revolt in 1831
what was the slave revolt of 1831
when nat turner and a group of other slaves killed white men
what were the problems for abolitionists?
violent resistance (fear of competition), seen as agents of disunion and movement splinters among various factions
why was there a fear of competition?
because the poor white farmers were afraid blacks would take their jobs if they were freed because they would work for less
what is meant by the time of reconstruction?
a time when the federal government is trying to get everyone back into the union
what did the 13th amendment in 1865 do?
what is the freedmens bureau?
it was an organization ran by the government that found jobs and houses for newly freed slaves
what was the civil rights act of 1866?
a federal law that protected Africans from harrassment in the south (went unenforced)
what did the 14th amendment in 1868 do?
gave africans full citizenship rights and equal protection (only applies to federal law)
what did the 15th amendment do?
gave african men the right to vote
when does the KKK form?
who was the KKK made up of and what was thir purpose?
made up of former confederate soldiers that wanted to keep blacks from voting
what was the compromise of 1877?
when hayes and tilden ran against each other for president and they tied, they had to come up with a compromise
what was hayes and tildens compromise?
that hayes would be president if the federal government would end reconstruction and allow the south to do what they want
what did the jim crow laws do?
they limited the power of africans and supported segregation
what was the plessy VS. ferguson trial about?
seperate but equal
what was the name of the trip africans took when they fled the south and settled in the north?
the great migration
what was the harlem renaissance?
a movement of african music and literature
who were two people that were involved in the harlem renaissance?
langston hughes and zora neale hurston
what did black nationalism do?
emphasized the need for africans to be separate from whites
what did Marcus Garvey say about black nationalism?
whites and blacks would never get along in this country
what was the NAACP?
national association for the advancement of colored people
what did the NAACP do?
it was formed to combat white violence
what was the brown VS. board of education trial about?
it ended school segregation and challenged the plessy VS. ferguson case
what was the "little rock nine"?
nine black students were integrated into a white school in Arkansas
who led the Southern Christian Leadership Conference?
what did the civil rights act of 1964 do?
outlawed discrimination in voting, hotels, theaters, restaurants, encourages the integration of schools and outlawed state and municipal governments from discrimination in their services (14th)
what did the voting rights act of 1965 do?
outlawed poll taxes and literacy tests and secured african voting rights (15th)
when and where was MLK assassinated?
what was malcolm x?
a more militant version of MLK who said that blacks will get equal rights by any means necessary
what was the black panther party?
advocates for violent reforms