primates test

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Reproductive Efficiency

Mammals are viviparous

Viviparous

Give birth to live young (no egg)
- Protection
- Nutrition

Heterodontism

Different types of teeth

Dental formula

2:1:2:3

Omnivorous diet

Eat alot of kinds of food

Homeothermy

Maintenence of constant internal body temperature through cellular respiration. Allows mammals to survive in a wide variety of temperatures.

Monotremes

Egg-laying mammals
Example: Platypus

Marsupials

Pouched mammals
Gives birth to under-developed live young
Develops inside the pouch

Placentals

Humans
Placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to develop fetus

Order Primates

Prisimians - monkeys - apes - humans

Primates

Prosimian - anthropoids

Anthropoids

New world monkeys - old world monkeys

Old world monkeys

Hominoids

Hominoids

Lesser apes - great apes - humans

Arboreal adaptations

Tree-dwelling adaptations

Cartmill's visual predation hypothesis

Early primates developed binocular vision because they were hunting insects (nuts don't move; insects do)

Primate locomotion

Quadropedalism - clinging/leaping - braciation - bipedalism

Quadropedalism

Walks on 4 legs
Ex: baboon

Brachiation

Arm over arm swinging, arms longer than legs
Ex: orangutans

Bipedalism

Walks on 2 legs

Primatology

Primate behavior
- gives clues to ancestors behaviors

Grooming

Hygiene-parasites, social-eases relationships

Dominance

Some members are dominant, maintained through hostile/threatening behavior
adaptive
Cuts down on chaos
Keeps group together

Mother-infant relationship

Harlow's studies
- Wire monkey with milk bottles
- Monkey covered in soft fabric with no food
sense of touch is important

Endotherms

Maintain body temperature internally (cellular respiration

Alloparent

Individual other than a parent that exhibits parental behavior. It teaches the childless how to parent. If parents die, the alloparent will "adopt" the offspring.

Male/Female relationships

Close bonding is not common in non human primates, little separation between roles of female and male

Sexual dimorphism

Males are larger in size and canine teeth

Canine teeth

Fighting other males for access to females

Communication

Any act that conveys information
Ex: gesture, facial expression, scent, displays

Displays

Stereotyped behavior that communicate emotions

Ritualized behavior

Exaggerated behavior, removed from its original context

Mounting

Nothing to do with sex, has to do with dominance

Language

Apes can't speak - throat anatomy is different
Hyoid bone is the capacity for language

Human language - abstract

Able to speak about things that aren't present in space or time

Arbitrary

Words have no relationship with what they stand for
Ex: flower

Sociobiology

Evolution of behavior by natural selection, assumes behaviors are genetic (controversial), natural selection will choose for the reproductively successful mammals

Infanticide

New male comes into a group and kills all infants

Ovulating

Can become pregnant

Altruistic behavior

Self sacrificing behavior, females and relatives fight to defend infants

Kin selection

Number of genes from relatives other than self

Parent/offspring - 1/2 genes shared
Siblings- 1/2
Aunt/uncle- 1/4
Niece/Nephew- 1/4

Male success

Quantity of offspring (promiscuous)

Female success

Quality of offspring (nurturing)

Coevolution

Flowering plants and insects evolve together

Hominids

Modern humans and all bipedal species back to the split between apes and humans

Australopithecines

Australopithecus Afarensis
Genus Species

Bipedal characteristics

Location of foramen magnum, shape of innominate, angle of femur (thigh bone)
- Shows transition between quadropedal primates and modern humans

Australopithecines

- 450 cc
- Bipedal but probably still a climber (curved fingers)
- 3-3.5 feel tall
- No tools
- Prey
- Found in South and East Africa

Archaeological evidence for bipedalism

Laetoli footprints

Pilocene

- Warming trend - 4-6 million years
- Reduction of forest
- Increase in grassland and swampy areas

Ecotone

Where 2 ecological zones meet

Homo Habilis

- 3-1.5 million years ago
- 1st tool maker - "handy man" (choppers)
- Scavenger, not a hunter
- 666 cc
- tool making <--> bipedalism

Homo Habilis

- Lack of a well-defined estrus (ovulation)
- Pelvis shape in male is compact (faster runner)
- Pelvis shape in female is wider (child birth)
- Babies are small brained
- Prolonged maturation
- Harsh environment

Reciprocal food sharing

They must rely on one another

Homo Erectus

- 1.5-300,000 years ago
- Larger brain - 950 cc
- Found in Africa, China, Indonesia, and Europe

Pleistocene

ICE AGES
- The water in the oceans is in the ice
- Land bridges

Environment in the ice age

- bigger brain
* fire: accident
* tools
* home base
* hunter; scavenger

Handaxe

Requires thought and planning

Flake tools

Sharp, useful tools
(flakes from the handaxe)

Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis

- "Neandertal Man"
- 125,000-40,000 years ago
- 1500 cc (modern: 130 cc) for physical strength and powerful upper body strength
- Large body size comes from ice age
- Found in Africa, Europe, and Middle East
- Probably developing lighter skin
- More tools
- Language- modern hyoid
- Home base
- Religious rituals (Neandertals or modern homo sapiens?)

Burials

- Israel
- Grave goods
- Flowers

Cave Bear Cult

- Switzerland
- Hunting magic

Cooperative hunting

group hunting

Modern Homo Sapiens Sapiens

- 40,000 - present
- "Cro Magnon man"
- 1330 cc
- diverse tools
- Art/Rituals

Composite tools

Made of more than one material

Atlatl

Spear thrower

Out of Africa Theory

- Modern homo sapiens evolved in Africa and migrated out of there.
- Came in contact with Neandertals

Wilson's Hypothesis

- Supported the out of africa theory
- mitochondrial DNA

Extermination

Moderns killed neandertals or out-competed them for food

Interbreeding

Modern humans have some Neandertal DNA

Multiregional evolution

Moderns came from Europe, Middle East, and Africa

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