AP World History Chapter 7 terms

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Sultan

the sovereign of an Islamic community

Seljuk Turks

Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century

Crusades

Series of military adventures initially launched by Western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and capturing Christian kingdoms; later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy

Ulama

Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking

Sufis

Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Asia and other regions

Mongols

Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian Kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph

Mameluks

Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance

Rajas

one of the the three gunas (qualities of nature) in Hindu philosophy

Sati

Ritual in india of immolating surviving widows with the bodies of their deceased husbands

Bhakti

a popular religious movement centered around the personal worship of gods

al-Mahdi

Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession

Harun al-Rashid

Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession

Buyids

Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid empire under title of Sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads

Saladin

Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam

Ibn Khaldun

A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors has a cycle of three generations; strong, weak, dissolute

Rubiyat

composed of four lines; Persian poetry; famous

Shah-Nama

Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests

Sa'di

one of the major Persian poets in the medieval period; known for depth of social thought as well as quality of writing

al-Razi

alchemist, physician, chemist, scholar, and philosopher. known for experimental medicine, pediatrics, neurosurgery and opthalmology

al-Biruni

first Muslim scholar to study india and Brahman tradition; anthropologist and scientific method

al-Ghazali

pioneer of methods of doubt and skepticism; changed course of early Muslim philosophy to one based on cause and effect by God and intermediate angels, known today as occasionalism

Muhammad ibn Qasim

Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire

arabic numerals

characters 0-9 read as a number

Harsha

Indian emperor who ruled over Northern India for 40 years; established first diplomatic relations between China and India; BUDDHIST

Mahmud of Ghazni

Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation of intolerance and aggressionN

Mahmud of Ghur

Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control

Qutb-ud-din Aibak

Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of india

Mir Bai

Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women

Kabir

Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam

Shrivijaya

Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion

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