Pathology Ch 9,10,11 Review

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chest, lungs, and conducting airways

The respiratory system consists of?

three

How many lobes does the right lung have?

two

How many lobes does the left lung have?

nose, mouth, sinuses, pharynx, larynx

The upper respiratory system consists of which parts?

trachea, lungs, bronchi, and bronchioles

The lower respiratory system consists of which parts?

medulla

What is the respiratory control center of the brain?

infection, inflammation, allergic reaction

When would you see nasal discharge?

ABG's, bronchoscopy, auscultation, chest X-ray's, sputum culture, PFT's

What are some common diagnostic tests for respiratory disorders?

rhinovirus

The most common respiratory infection is called?

sinus pressure, headache, tiredness, night cough, runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat

What are symptoms of a sinus infection?

salt water gargles, throat lozenges, analgesics

How is non-bacterial pharyngitis treated?

hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, throat pain and fever

Symptoms of laryngitis include?

inhaling fumes, smoke, dust, cold air

Bronchitis is not bacterial, so what causes it?

increase fluids, rest, cough syrup, analgesics, antipyretics

How is bronchitis treated?

aches, fever, chills, back pain, muscle aches

Characteristics of influenza are?

emphysema

What is the most common COPD?

symptomatically with bronchodilators

How is emphysema treated?

pursed lip breathing, leaning over a chair to use accessory muscles to blow out trapped air

Individuals with COPD can exhibit what physical behavioral symptoms that you can see?

pneumococcal & tuberculous bacterial

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli due to infection by?

symptomatically with rest, analgesics, increase fluids, high calorie diet, oxygen therapy

Treatment for viral pneumonia is ?

immobility, smoking, not exercising lungs after surgery

How does a person get pneumonia?

transportation of lymph, filters bacterial and non-bacterial products, prevents wastes from entering the circulatory system

What are the functions of the lymph vessels?

swelling of lymph gland, lymph node, or both

Characteristics of lymphadenitis include?

Streptococcal bacteria following trauma

What causes lymphangitis?

red streak at the bacterial entry site leading to lymph node, fever, chills, malaise, cellulitis

Symptoms of Lymphangitis are

antibiotics, warm moist packs, and elevation of affected area

Treatment for lymphangitis include?

lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and lymph fluid

Lymphoma refers to several types of neoplasms that affect these lymphoid tissues?

lymphoma

The most common type of blood cancer is?

reddened lips, tongue, and mucous membranes, rash, edema of the hands and feet, fever, dry skin

Symptoms of Kawasaki disease include?

elevating affected area when at rest, avoiding heat, avoiding tight clothing, keeping the extremity clean to avoid infection

Preventative measures for lymphedema are?

endoscopy, EGD, GI series, occult blood, ova & parasites

Diagnostic tests for the digestive system include?

the upper GI tract (swallowing barium) and the lower GI tract (barium enema)

Barium is used to visualize what in a GI series?

peristalsis (peristaltic contraction)

What moves food from the pharynx down the esophagus and into the stomach?

cardiac sphincter

The thick ring of smooth muscle that connects the esophagus to the stomach is?

pyloric sphincter

The opening at the end of the stomach where it meets the small intestine is called?

the colon

Another name for the large intestine is?

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

Name the three parts of the small intestine?

vomiting blood

What is hematemesis?

black tarry stools

What is melena?

watery stools

What is diarrhea?

disease that affects the gums (supporting structures of the teeth)

What is periodontal disease?

frequent brushing and flossing, plaque removal, and adequate diet

Prevention of periodontal disease includes?

scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and glomerulonephritis

Bacterial infection from strep throat can spread to the bloodstream and cause?

heartburn

The most common symptom of reflux is?

dietary changes, avoid caffeine, antacids, elevate the head of the bed

Treatment of reflux consists of ?

chest cavity

A hiatal hernia is part of the stomach sliding up into what?

liver

Esophageal varices are indicative of problems with what organ?

H pylori bacteria, tobacco, alcohol, coffee

Causes of gastritis include?

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