Ch: 10. The play years: psychosocial development

53 terms by jessicasb123

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Ch 10: the play years: psychosocial development

(emotional regulation)

learning when and how to express your emotions- the most important psychosocial development to occur between ages ___

2-6

children begin new activities and feel guilty when they fail

initiative versus guilt

erik erikson's psychosocial theory, 3rd developmental stage.
positive enthusiasm, effort, and self-evaluation characterize ages 3-6**

initiative versus guilt

belief in one's own ability, a persona; estimate of success and worthiness

self-esteem

understanding of themselves, includes self-esteem and facts like gender and size

self-concept

-optimistic about themselves
-longer attention span
-discovering purpose for what they do
-self-esteem and concentration are connected to motivation, cognition, and experience, all of which correlate with maturation but not caused by it.
-not afraid to try new things

pride

guilt a more mature emotion than shame
-guilt is internalized- originates from within
-shame depends on other people (blame, ctiticism)
-shame at 2 and guilt at 5 signifies maturation during these years

guilt and shame

shame at age __

2

guilt at age ___

5

from the inside, for enjoyment


(motivation)

intrinsic

from outside, for rewards or someone else's approval


(motivation)

extrinsic

preschool children are mostly ____ motivated

intrinsically

cross-cultural research showed differences in emotional regulation
-US- overcome fears
-Puerto Rico- modify anger
-China- temper pride
-Japan- control aggression

emotional regulation and culture

psycho

mind

pathology

illness or disorder

-first signs when emotions appear to overwhelm a child
-emotional regulation begins with impulse control (anger issues)

psychopathology

lash out
attach people
"undercontrolled":

(enotional balance)

externalizing problems

fearful
withdrawn
turning emotions inward
"overcontrolled"

(emotional balance"

internalizing problem

patly neurologtical- brainfunctioning
-thinking before acting
-using prefrontal cortex, limbic system, amygdala
-emotional differences between girls/ boys

emotional regulation

girls better at regulating _____ emotions

externalizing

boys better at _____ emotions

internalizing

neurological damage

prenatally
infancy

preschoolers- maltreated- __% emotionally disregulated

80%

many influences affect each child

nature and nurture interact

increasing social awareness and decreasing egocentrism

empathy and antipathy

an understanding of the feelings and concerns of others- not "sympathy". which is feeling sorry for someone

empathy

a dislike or even hatred of other people-more like disagreeing with someone

antipathy

as they move from egocentrism and theory of mind, developing empathy, they do not always read emotions accurately
-takes maturity to correctly read tone, expression, body language
they sometimes have "too much" empathy- become too distressed to help

developing empathy

empathy leads to ____

-offering help, kindness, concern

prosocial

antipathy leads to ____ deliberately injuring others or destroying property of others-- verbal insults, social exclusion

antisocial behavior

prosocial behavior increases from age ___

-toddler hits mom, different from 5 year old hitting mom. at 5, signal of a disturbed relationship that may carry over to others.

3-6

____ vary acceptance levels on levels of prosocial and antisocial behavior

cultures

vary on whether certain behaviors are good/ bad.

culture and behavior

most young children are not prejudiced against groups of people based on background characteristics (gender, ethnicity) learned as they grown older

culture and behavior

instrumental
reactive
relational
bullying

4 forms of aggression

egocentric- aimed at gaining something someone else has

instrumental

impulsive retaliation, can be verbal or physical, should stop by about age 5

reactive

nonphysical acts- insults, social rejection- more common as children become socially aware

relational

unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attacks, esp. on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
adults should intervene before school years

bullying

follows a developmental patter: becomes less common, more harmful with time

aggression

aggressive

infants

almost all are aggressive

2 year olds

if aggression has not diminished, the child more likely to continue this patters throughout childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.. unless, successful intervention takes place

by age 3

need regulation, not repression

emotions

______ and _____ can be problematic- leading to psychological problems.

overcontrol
undercontrol

the most influential research done (1967, 1971who studied 100 preschool children, all from cali, almost all middle-class european americans

Diana Baumrind

expression of ____-affectionate or cold/ critical

warmth

strategies for _____- explaining, criticize, persuade, ignore, punish

discipline

listen patiently or demand silence

communication

expectation for _____= standards for responsibility and self-control

maturity

"authorities"
-strict, often physical, clear rules, high standards, discussions rare, aloof, affection rare

authoritarian

"friends"
-few demands, lax discipline, low expectations, nurturing and accepting, listening

permissive

"guides"
-set limits, enforce rules but listen, demand maturity but are forgiving-- flexible

authoritative

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set