CHAPTER 7 BONE TISSUES

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True

Most blood cells are produced in the bones.

False

The femur (thighbone) is an irregular bone

False

An X-ray of a child's hand will show epiphyseal lines.

True

The hemopoietic tissue in a bone is otherwise known as myeloid tissue.

False

Concentric lamellae are connected with each other by lacunae

False

Osteogenic cells are bone stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts

True

Osteoid tissue is similar to bone except for a lack of minerals.

False

Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults

False

Bones grow in diameter by interstitial growth

True

Hypercalcemia causes depression of the nervous system

True

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to receptors on osteoblasts

True

Hypercalcemia is rare but hypocalcemia can result from a wide variety of causes

False

Closed reduction is the realignment of the parts of a broken bone involving surgery

False

Osteomalacia results in bone brittleness

True

Osteoporosis often leads to an exaggerated thoracic spinal curvature called kyphosis

store red blood cells

The skeleton does not

connective

Osseous tissue is a(an) ____________ tissue.

transitional epithelium

These are all tissues that make up a long bone except

rounded bones

The four groups of bones include all the following except

marrow cavity

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent?

epiphyseal line

21. This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?

articular cartilage

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?

an epiphysies

The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called

periosteum; endosteum

A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______________, whereas the internal surface is lined with _____________.

Osteoblasts

_____________ are bone-forming cells.

osteoblasts; osteocytes

When ____________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _____________.

lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes

This image shows the histology of osseous tissue. Label "2" represents ____________, which is(are) ____________.

Hydroxyapatite

Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?

spongy bone.

Spicules and trabeculae are found in

yellow bone marrow.

Red bone marrow does not contain

Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins

____________ provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas ____________ provide(s) some degree of flexibility.

Osteoclasts; osteocytes

___________ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ____________ have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.

yellow bone marrow

What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?

osteoclasts

Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?

Central canals

_______________ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.

flat bones of the skull.

Intramembranous ossification produces the

hyaline cartilage.

Endochondral ossification is a precursor made of _____________ is replaced by bone.

metaphysis

The _____________ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.

epiphyseal plate

Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the

zone of cell proliferation

Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.

appositional growth

Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing

cartilage growth.

Bone elongation is a result of

mechanical stress on bone remodeling.

Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of

E. articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.

A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are

Resorption

_____________ is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.

the first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate

Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?

amino acids.

Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except

DNA synthesis.

Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except

lower blood calcium.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not

Calcitriol

____________ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone

cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate

Which of these is not an effect of calcitriol?

Removal of the thyroid gland

____________ does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia.

parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity

Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates __________ secretion, which leads to _____________.

spasms

Hypocalcemia can cause

abnormal calcification of a tissue.

Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means

an elevated level of osteoblast activity

If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect

the healing of a fracture.

A soft callus forms during

estrogen; osteoclast activity

Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ____________.

comminuted

A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a __________ fracture.

rickets; osteomalacia

The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called ___________ in children and ___________ in adults.

open

Bone protrudes through skin in a fracture called

is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease.

A pathologic fracture

hematoma formation  soft callus formation  hard callus formation  bone remodeling

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture?

soft callus; hard callus

Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called ________, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called _________.

Osteoporosis

____________ affects more people than any other bone disease.

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