x-ray tech final exam

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when an image demonstrates considerable differences between the densities, the image is described as:

High Contrast

radiographic density refers to the:

overall blackness of the film

On a basic AP exam of the knee, the central ray should be:

angled 5 degrees cephalad and centered to the inferior margin of the patella

On a basic oblique of the foot, the______should be free of superimposition.

Metatarsals

There are ______ tarsal bones in the foot.

7

When an image demonstrates only a few densities but there are large differences between the adjacent densities, the image is described as having:

Short scale contrast

What does it mean to say that radiographic film is "duplitized"?

there is emulsion on both sides of the film

Flourescence is responsible for how much of the image on the film?

99%

radiographic film is sensative to light, radiation, and all of the following except:

odors

Which of the following conditions contribute to increased recorded detail?

small focal spot size, long SID, and short OID

The cental ray on an AP lower leg is:

perpendicular to the center of the film entering the midshaft of the tibia

In order to better visualize the joint space in the AP projection of the knee, the central ray may be angled 5 degrees:

cephalic

This should be seen on the distal femur:

knee joint and distal 3/4 of the femur

The standard screen against which others are measured is:

100 RS

Which radiographic quality factor can be described as misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure?

distortion

The 2 projections shown below the neck of the femur is called:

greater and lesser trochanter

Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light?

phosphor layer

This screen is twice as fast as a 100 RS screen:

200 RS

Which of the following describe the characteristic curve of a film with wide latitude and longer scale contrast?

a more horizontal and wide curve

Which of the following is/are shape distortion?

elongation and foreshortening

If a radiographic image appears blurred, which exposure factor would be used to correct this problem?

decrease in exposure time (seconds)

lateral to the cuneiform bone in the midfoot is the:

cuboid

how often should screens be cleaned and inspected?

every 3 months

the inverse square law governs the relationship between:

x ray beam intensity and distance

the structures that should be seen in a basic toe should include:

all of the above (entire digit, metatarsalphalangeal joint spaces, distal half of the metatarsals)

Long scale contrast is

many shades of gray

on a lateral knee, the knee should be flexed about:

20-30 degrees

both the camp coventry and the holmblad method are used to view what:

intercondylar fossa

this projection provides an axial view of the patella:

settegast

what is the relationship between film latitude and contrast:

inversely proportional

the heel bone is also called the

calcaneus

digits 2-5 of the foot have how many bones each?

3

in the lower leg AP and lateral views, these structures should be seen:

tibia, fibula, both joints

which of the following should you decrease to reduce magnification?

OID

the SID affects the:

intensity of the beam

this is caused by random distribution of photons and appears as grainy spots on the image:

quantum mottle

which structures lies anterior to the distal femur?

patella

the lateral bone of the lower leg is the:

fibula

on the AP projection of the ankle which of these items must be visible?

lateral malleolus and medial malleolus

this is the "ankle bone":

talus

the SID for most projections of the lower extremity is:

40 inches

the central ray on an AP foot is:

angled 10 degrees cephalic

these meet to form the knee:

femoral condyles and the tibial plateau

short scale of contrast (high contrast) is produced by:

low kVp

the slope of the straight line portion of the sensitometric curve indicates the film's:

contrast and latitude

this lies anterior to the distal femur:

patella

the steeper the straight line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the

greater the film speed, higher the film contrast, narrower the exposure latitude

the patella is a ____bone.

sesamoid

contrast is usually controlled by:

kVp

which of the following is true regarding the correct positioning of the ankle for a lateral projection:

the CR enters perpendicular to the medial malleolus

intensifying screens are designed to:

reduce the amount of exposure

what are the two primary types of distortion:

size and shape

in the lateral projection of the knee, which of these should not be seen:

femoral neck

intercondylar eminences are also called

tibial spines

the back of the cassettes has a layer of lead to prevent:

backscatter

the prominence that inserts into the acetabulum is the ______of the femur.

head

which of these is a function of the cassette:

protect film from exposure to light, prevent film from bending and scratching, hold and protect the intensifying screen

contact test mesh is used to

make sure that film/screen contact is adequate

what is meant by the term spectral emission?

the color of light emitted by the screen phosphor

this is the term used to describe the "unsharp edges" of the body part on the film:

penumbra

when comparing two intensifying screens of the same phosphor type, the screen with the smaller phosphor crystals will:

produce a radiographic image with more recorded detail

a change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:

decreased recorded detail

which of the following may be caused by poor film/screen contact?

image blur

if the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem:

decrease mAs

the intertarsal joints are what type of joints?

gliding

this lies between the condyles of the femur, posteriorly:

intercondylar fossa

the OID is the:

distance from the object to the film

if the OID can not be minimized by positioning, magnification can be reduced by doing the following:

increase SID and use small focal spot

density is controlled by:

mAs

what would be the result of increasing the OID from 2 inches to 4 inches?

greater magnification

in the holmblad method, the angle between the femur and the table should be:

70 degrees

the central ray on a basic toe exam is

perpendicular to the MP joint

the PA projection of the knee is usually done if this is of particular interest

patella

on a lateral distal femur the leg should be flexed

30-45 degrees

the cental ray using the Sunrise view of the knee is:

angled so that the central ray passes between the patella and the distal femur

for an AP of the foot the foot should be situated so that

the plantar surface of the foot is in contact with the cassette

on a distal femur view the bottom of the film is placed

1-2 inches below the knee

in the holmblad method the angle between the femur and the table should be

70 degrees

at what temperature should radiographic film be stored?

50-70 degrees

if a films spectral sensitivity is not matched to a screen's spectral emission what is the consequences:

inappropriate matching of film and screen increases the exposure required to produce an image, thus unnecessarily increasing the patients exposure

what is the appropriate humidity for proper film storage:

30-50%

if an image were made using 500 mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75 kVp what would the mAs be for this exposure:

50 mAs

the bone that is proximal to the cuneiforms is the

scaphoid

kilovoltage controls

x ray penetration

when using a fast screen how would you reduce quantom mottle:

increase exposure time and increase mA

what is the knob like protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia near the proximal end of the shaft.

tibial tuberosity

the articular surface of each femoral condyle is cushioned by a C shaped cartilage called the

meniscus

the distance between the tube target and the IR is termed:

source image distance

what is the proper CR angle and direction for the axial projection of the calcaneus when the ankle is dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is perpendicular to the IR?

40 degree cephalic

mAs equals

mA x time

the apex of the patella is on the proximal end of the patella.

false

in a distal femur exam, the bucky should be used.

true

the IR and film are the same thing.

true

tissue density and radiographic density are essentially the same thing

false

film should not be laid flat in storage

true

some people have a small sesamoid bone in the back of their knee called the flabella

true

the camp coventry method should always be done with a bucky

false

the bucky should never be used for a knee film.

false

the retropatellar joint space can be seen on an AP knee radiographic

false

on the basic lower leg it is preferred to have both joints visible

true

the femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body

true

a film that is too dark is said to be overexposed.

true

the fibula is larger than the tibia

false

the lesser trochanter is inferior to the greater trochanter.

true

for the axial view of the calcaneus the ankle must be dorsiflexed as much as possible and held in position.

true

what are the parts of the fixer?

clearing agent, hardener, activator, preservative, solvent

what does the clearing agent of the fixer do:

dissolves undeveloped silver halide

what do the reducing agents of the developer do?

reduces exposed silver halide to black metallic silver

how should film be stored?

vertically

how would you repair a light leak in the darkroom

replace filter

what should the repeat ratio for an experienced operator be?

4% or below

what does I AM EXPERT stand for

identification, anatomy, markings, exposure, processing, esthetic quality, radiation safety, troubleshooting

what is the protocol for PA wrist

PA, PA LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL

what is the protocol for the PA hand

PA, LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL (FAN)

what is the protocol for the elbow

AP, LATERAL, AP OBLIQUE MEDIAL ROTATION, AP OBLIQUE LATERAL ROTATION

what is the protocol for the forearm

AP, LATERAL

the coronal plane is parallel to the IR for the lateral view of the wrist

false

the stecher view is done to view what specific anatomy:

scaphoid

why would an AP projection of the wrist be done in addition to the routine views

to see the lunate and pisiform

what is another name for the tips of the fingers?

ungual tufts

what is the protocol for a humerus

AP, LATERAL

what is the temperature for the dryer

110 degrees

for the lateral scapula what is the rotation of the body

45-60 degrees

describe RAO position

facing the bucky and the right side is touching

what is seen on the AP pelvis

proximal 4th of the femur and the pelvis

what cause chemical fog

contaminated developer, developer too high, film in developer too long (all these above)

developer temp in processor

no more than 5 degrees

for involuntary motion

decrease exposure time

structural mottle is caused by

all of these: crystal thickness, crystal size, and uneven crystal distributions

what type of joint is the knee

hinge

on a AP hip the feet should be rotated

15-20 degrees medially

all of the following factors will result in high density except:

large SID

which is not considered a rapid screen

100 RS

using the holmblad method for tissue thickness of the distal femur

increase mAs by 50%

this is the rounded socket of the hip joint

acetabulum

in some states it is required to have a quality control process for the film processor

true

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