when an image demonstrates considerable differences between the densities, the image is described as:
radiographic density refers to the:
overall blackness of the film
On a basic AP exam of the knee, the central ray should be:
angled 5 degrees cephalad and centered to the inferior margin of the patella
On a basic oblique of the foot, the______should be free of superimposition.
There are ______ tarsal bones in the foot.
When an image demonstrates only a few densities but there are large differences between the adjacent densities, the image is described as having:
Short scale contrast
What does it mean to say that radiographic film is "duplitized"?
there is emulsion on both sides of the film
Flourescence is responsible for how much of the image on the film?
radiographic film is sensative to light, radiation, and all of the following except:
Which of the following conditions contribute to increased recorded detail?
small focal spot size, long SID, and short OID
The cental ray on an AP lower leg is:
perpendicular to the center of the film entering the midshaft of the tibia
In order to better visualize the joint space in the AP projection of the knee, the central ray may be angled 5 degrees:
This should be seen on the distal femur:
knee joint and distal 3/4 of the femur
The standard screen against which others are measured is:
Which radiographic quality factor can be described as misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure?
The 2 projections shown below the neck of the femur is called:
greater and lesser trochanter
Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light?
This screen is twice as fast as a 100 RS screen:
Which of the following describe the characteristic curve of a film with wide latitude and longer scale contrast?
a more horizontal and wide curve
Which of the following is/are shape distortion?
elongation and foreshortening
If a radiographic image appears blurred, which exposure factor would be used to correct this problem?
decrease in exposure time (seconds)
lateral to the cuneiform bone in the midfoot is the:
how often should screens be cleaned and inspected?
every 3 months
the inverse square law governs the relationship between:
x ray beam intensity and distance
the structures that should be seen in a basic toe should include:
all of the above (entire digit, metatarsalphalangeal joint spaces, distal half of the metatarsals)
Long scale contrast is
many shades of gray
on a lateral knee, the knee should be flexed about:
both the camp coventry and the holmblad method are used to view what:
this projection provides an axial view of the patella:
what is the relationship between film latitude and contrast:
the heel bone is also called the
digits 2-5 of the foot have how many bones each?
in the lower leg AP and lateral views, these structures should be seen:
tibia, fibula, both joints
which of the following should you decrease to reduce magnification?
the SID affects the:
intensity of the beam
this is caused by random distribution of photons and appears as grainy spots on the image:
which structures lies anterior to the distal femur?
the lateral bone of the lower leg is the:
on the AP projection of the ankle which of these items must be visible?
lateral malleolus and medial malleolus
this is the "ankle bone":
the SID for most projections of the lower extremity is:
the central ray on an AP foot is:
angled 10 degrees cephalic
these meet to form the knee:
femoral condyles and the tibial plateau
short scale of contrast (high contrast) is produced by:
the slope of the straight line portion of the sensitometric curve indicates the film's:
contrast and latitude
this lies anterior to the distal femur:
the steeper the straight line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
greater the film speed, higher the film contrast, narrower the exposure latitude
the patella is a ____bone.
contrast is usually controlled by:
which of the following is true regarding the correct positioning of the ankle for a lateral projection:
the CR enters perpendicular to the medial malleolus
intensifying screens are designed to:
reduce the amount of exposure
what are the two primary types of distortion:
size and shape
in the lateral projection of the knee, which of these should not be seen:
intercondylar eminences are also called
the back of the cassettes has a layer of lead to prevent:
the prominence that inserts into the acetabulum is the ______of the femur.
which of these is a function of the cassette:
protect film from exposure to light, prevent film from bending and scratching, hold and protect the intensifying screen
contact test mesh is used to
make sure that film/screen contact is adequate
what is meant by the term spectral emission?
the color of light emitted by the screen phosphor
this is the term used to describe the "unsharp edges" of the body part on the film:
when comparing two intensifying screens of the same phosphor type, the screen with the smaller phosphor crystals will:
produce a radiographic image with more recorded detail
a change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:
decreased recorded detail
which of the following may be caused by poor film/screen contact?
if the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem:
the intertarsal joints are what type of joints?
this lies between the condyles of the femur, posteriorly:
the OID is the:
distance from the object to the film
if the OID can not be minimized by positioning, magnification can be reduced by doing the following:
increase SID and use small focal spot
density is controlled by:
what would be the result of increasing the OID from 2 inches to 4 inches?
in the holmblad method, the angle between the femur and the table should be:
the central ray on a basic toe exam is
perpendicular to the MP joint
the PA projection of the knee is usually done if this is of particular interest
on a lateral distal femur the leg should be flexed
the cental ray using the Sunrise view of the knee is:
angled so that the central ray passes between the patella and the distal femur
for an AP of the foot the foot should be situated so that
the plantar surface of the foot is in contact with the cassette
on a distal femur view the bottom of the film is placed
1-2 inches below the knee
in the holmblad method the angle between the femur and the table should be
at what temperature should radiographic film be stored?
if a films spectral sensitivity is not matched to a screen's spectral emission what is the consequences:
inappropriate matching of film and screen increases the exposure required to produce an image, thus unnecessarily increasing the patients exposure
what is the appropriate humidity for proper film storage:
if an image were made using 500 mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75 kVp what would the mAs be for this exposure:
the bone that is proximal to the cuneiforms is the
x ray penetration
when using a fast screen how would you reduce quantom mottle:
increase exposure time and increase mA
what is the knob like protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia near the proximal end of the shaft.
the articular surface of each femoral condyle is cushioned by a C shaped cartilage called the
the distance between the tube target and the IR is termed:
source image distance
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the axial projection of the calcaneus when the ankle is dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is perpendicular to the IR?
40 degree cephalic
mA x time
the apex of the patella is on the proximal end of the patella.
in a distal femur exam, the bucky should be used.
the IR and film are the same thing.
tissue density and radiographic density are essentially the same thing
film should not be laid flat in storage
some people have a small sesamoid bone in the back of their knee called the flabella
the camp coventry method should always be done with a bucky
the bucky should never be used for a knee film.
the retropatellar joint space can be seen on an AP knee radiographic
on the basic lower leg it is preferred to have both joints visible
the femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body
a film that is too dark is said to be overexposed.
the fibula is larger than the tibia
the lesser trochanter is inferior to the greater trochanter.
for the axial view of the calcaneus the ankle must be dorsiflexed as much as possible and held in position.
what are the parts of the fixer?
clearing agent, hardener, activator, preservative, solvent
what does the clearing agent of the fixer do:
dissolves undeveloped silver halide
what do the reducing agents of the developer do?
reduces exposed silver halide to black metallic silver
how should film be stored?
how would you repair a light leak in the darkroom
what should the repeat ratio for an experienced operator be?
4% or below
what does I AM EXPERT stand for
identification, anatomy, markings, exposure, processing, esthetic quality, radiation safety, troubleshooting
what is the protocol for PA wrist
PA, PA LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL
what is the protocol for the PA hand
PA, LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL (FAN)
what is the protocol for the elbow
AP, LATERAL, AP OBLIQUE MEDIAL ROTATION, AP OBLIQUE LATERAL ROTATION
what is the protocol for the forearm
the coronal plane is parallel to the IR for the lateral view of the wrist
the stecher view is done to view what specific anatomy:
why would an AP projection of the wrist be done in addition to the routine views
to see the lunate and pisiform
what is another name for the tips of the fingers?
what is the protocol for a humerus
what is the temperature for the dryer
for the lateral scapula what is the rotation of the body
describe RAO position
facing the bucky and the right side is touching
what is seen on the AP pelvis
proximal 4th of the femur and the pelvis
what cause chemical fog
contaminated developer, developer too high, film in developer too long (all these above)
developer temp in processor
no more than 5 degrees
for involuntary motion
decrease exposure time
structural mottle is caused by
all of these: crystal thickness, crystal size, and uneven crystal distributions
what type of joint is the knee
on a AP hip the feet should be rotated
15-20 degrees medially
all of the following factors will result in high density except:
which is not considered a rapid screen
using the holmblad method for tissue thickness of the distal femur
increase mAs by 50%
this is the rounded socket of the hip joint
in some states it is required to have a quality control process for the film processor