Baking and Pastry Fundamentals Final

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Creaming Method

Versatile mixing method. Used in cookies, tarts, cakes and icings. Contains Sugar, fat, eggs and flour.

Best Temperature for fat in creaming method is

65-70 F

Characteristics of creamed and fat sugar mixture

Homogeneous, lighter in color, increased volume.

What attachment is used for creaming method?

Paddle

Two cut in methods

Flakey and Mealy

What is the importance of butter in the cut in method?

Determines the final texture by the size of the fat in the dough.

What is the number one rule involving the cut in method?

KEEP IT COLD!

Ingredients of cut in

Flour, Flavorings, Fat and Liquids.

For flakey dough, how big should the fat be?

Size of a walnut

For mealy dough, how big should the fat be?

Size of a pea

Cut in method

Cut the cold fat into cubes, work fat with flour, keep cold then form a well in the middle and incorporate dough carefully.

Pie filling methods

Uncooked fruit, precooked fruit, custard, cream

Example of Uncooked fruit

Classic Apple Pie.

Example of Cooked fruit in Pies

Fruit / Fillings cooked on stove. Thickened with a starch slurry. Cherry

Example of Custard in pies

Pumpkin and pecan pie. Shell is blind baked.

Example of Cream Pies

Banana cream and chocolate cream.
Filling is a boiled custard.
Shell is pre baked.

Cold butter is used in pie dough to

Help create layers

What is the basic pie ratio

3-2-1

What does the 3 in basic pie dough ratio refer to

Flour

What does the 2 in basic pie dough ratio refer to

Fat

What does the 1 in basic pie dough ratio refer to

Liquid

What are the two foaming methods

Warm foaming, separated foaming

What are the uses of the warm foaming method?

Greater volume, more stability

What are the ingredients of the warm foaming method?

Eggs, sugar, cake flour, flavoring, fat

Separated foaming method

Most stable foaming method, where eggs are whipped into two foams and folded together.

When do you spread or pipe for the separated foaming method?

IMMEDIATELY!

Pre cooking

Process of initially cooking ingredients to pre-gelatinize starch, evaporate moisture, and dissolve sugar. Used in pate a choux and cream puffs

Ingredients for pre cooking method

Water, milk, butter, salt, flour, eggs

What should the consistency of your choux resemble?

Toothpaste

How do you know if choux is baked?

Even browning on top and slightly less color on the side walls

What would be the difference in using water instead of milk in choux?

The product will be lighter in color

How do you add eggs in pate a choux?

In parts, scraping after each addition.

What attachment is used for the pate a choux?

Paddle

Why do we use the pre cooked method in the making of choux?

To pre-gelatinize the starches.

Blending method is used for

Quick breads and muffins

What leavener is used in the blending method?

Chemical

What are the dimensions of a julienne cut?

1/8 x 1/8 x 1-2 inches

What are the dimensions of a Batonnet cut?

1/4 x 1/4 x 1-2 inches

What are the dimensions of a brunoise cut?

1/8 x 1/8 x 1/8

What are the dimensions of a small dice?

1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4

How do you convert from ounces to grams?

Multiply by 28.35

1 pound is how many grams?

454 grams

Pate a choux ratio

2:1:1:2 ; 2 parts liquid, 1 part fat, 1 part flour, 2 parts eggs

Meringue Ratio

2 parts sugar, 1 parts egg whites

Baking Temperature for Genoise

325 in deck oven

Baking Temperature for Custards (pot de creme)

325, low and slow

Baking Temperature for Chiffon Cake

350 in deck

Folding Method for Puff Pastry

4-3-4-3

Folding Method for Croissants

4-3-3

What is the process of aerating ice cream called?

Overrun

What happens when you freeze ice cream base while warm?

You get large ice crystals

What are the components of sorbet?

Fruit Puree, Sorbet Syrup

What are the two methods of tempering chocolate?

Seeding and Tabling

What is the working temperature of chocolate?

88-90 F

Three leavening agents

Biological, chemical, mechanical; yeast, baking powder, air

Whole eggs can whip to how many times

4 times

Egg whites can whip to how many times

8 times

What temperature do you bake pate a choux?

375-400

How many ounces in a gallon?

128 oz

What temperature do you bake pies

375 F

What temperature do you bake biscuits?

325 F

What is the leavening agent in pate a choux?

Steam

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